Recall from our introduction to networking that the Application Layer is where programs that provide end user services reside in the TCP/IP Stack. The programs that you use on a daily basis operate at the Application Layer; e.g. web browsing, email. We will look at some protocols that you know you make use of on a daily basis, and some protocols that you probably didn't know you make use of on a daily basis. Just like the lower layer protocols in the TCP/IP Stack, all of the protocols we discuss here all provide a service, and all of them are based on a client-server model.
The Application Layer is at the top of the TCP/IP Stack, but in practice that does not mean that an Application Layer protocol or service is only used by the user. In fact as we continue to expand the use of the Internet, and technology, more an more services at the Application Layer are using other Application Layer protocols or services in order to provide their service. For example, Application A, at the Application Layer, will make use of Application B, also at the Application Layer, in order to provide its (Application A) service.
Each of the below protocols have a default Transport Layer port that the server will listen for incoming client requests on. The default Transport Layer port is a part of the Application Layer protocol specification. However, there is nothing preventing the use of the any Application Layer protocol on any Transport Layer port. That is any of the below protocols can be used on any Transport Layer port. But, in order for a client to use the service being provided they need to know the port the server is listening on. By offering services on the default port, then clients (users) are able to easily find and use the service. Offering services on other than default ports only makes it more difficult, but not impossible, for users on the Internet to find the service.
At this point you might be wondering, if my host (computer) needs an IP address so that it can communicate via the Internet, then why have I never had to configure, much less know, what my IP address is? Connecting to and using a network is effortless for even beginner computer users in part because of DHCP. Right now, you are using a network to access this page, but you probably did not concern yourself with configuring your IP settings and DNS server address (more to follow). That is because it was automatically done for you by a service called DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) provided by the network. Your computer is already configured to use DHCP, so when you plug in the Ethernet cable (or connect to a wireless network), your computer broadcasts a request for an IP address. The DHCP server replies with an IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway router for your host to use. For networks without the DHCP service, users must obtain their IP settings from the network administrator and manually configure their computers.
The DHCP protocol runs over UDP, using ports 67 and 68. So, why UDP for DHCP? Well, let's think about that a little. TCP certainly has a great feature in that it provides reliable communications between the two hosts. Recall, that we said TCP is connection oriented, and that the two hosts need to synchronize in order to start exchanging messages, exchanging data. Well, that synchronization cannot occur if one of the hosts does not have an IP address. The whole reason why a client uses DHCP is so that it can get an IP address. Therefore, DHCP cannot use TCP, DHCP must use UDP. UDP allows a host to send a message without a connection; a host does not need to establish a connection in order to create a UDP datagram and an associated IP packet.
nslookuprequires an Administrator shell.
Domain Names. When communicating over the phone, we distinguish between a person's name and their phone number. In fact we only need the number to make a call. The name by itself isn't useful. On the other hand, the name is what we actually associate with the person. If your friend says "Who did you just call?", you say "Bill" not "410-293-9999". Phone numbers may change, but usually a person's name stays the same.
The situation on the Internet is similar: a host's IP address may often change, but it's associated name usually does not.
What you need to communicate with another host on the Internet is its IP address.
But when we as people identify a host, it's with a name, like
This kind of name is called a domain name.
Domain names are Hierarchical.
They're just like paths in a file system; the only difference is that we write them the other way around:
usna.edu instead of
In a domain name, the more specific portion is to the left, the more general portion is to the right.
intranet.usna.edu is a subset of
usna.edu, which is in turn a subset of
.edu, which is called a "top-level domain".
The top of the entire hierarchy is called the root, and the root domain is the name "
It is common practice not to write the ending
. of the domain name, in DNS the root is always inferred.
The next level down in the hierarchy is the name at the right end:
.mil are are all examples of top-level domains.
Check out this list of top-level domain names.
www at the front of a name, like
www.usna.edu usually is meant to indicate a web server, but having
www at the front of a domain name doesn't make a host a web server any more than having the first name "Prince" makes you royalty.
Having your web server named
www is just a convention, a convention that helps clients find your publicly available services.
Why We Need It. Before you can communicate with another host on the Internet, you need an IP address for it. However, we usually have a domain name, not an IP address. So we need to consult some kind of "phonebook" equivalent to get the IP address from the symbolic name. The irony is that the DNS "phonebook" is itself another host on the Internet, and talking to it requires an IP address ... so there's a whole chicken-egg thing here.
What It Does.
The "phonebook" of the Internet is called DNS (Domain Name System).
It consists of a global system of servers, called name server, that translate symbolic names to IP addresses either by knowing the answer, or passing the query along to a server that does.
To translate a symbolic name to an IP address, you need to query a name server, which requires knowing the name server's IP address.
If you only had the symbolic name of the name server, you'd be in trouble.
However, when your computer joins a network, it is usually given the IP address of one or more name servers, from a protocol like DHCP.
You can see these addresses with the shell command
Look for the line
DNS Servers. . . . . : 10.1.74.10
that contains the IP addresses of one or more name servers.
A Tool for DNS: nslookup.
nslookup utility is a shell tool (for both Windows and UNIX) that will carry out a DNS request for you.
Here's an example:
$ nslookup yog.academy.usna.edu Server: ns1.usna.edu Address: 10.1.74.10 Name: yog.academy.usna.edu Address: 10.1.83.30
From this we see that the IP address of the host
Furthermore, the output is telling us that the name server that provided us this answer has IP address
nslookup utility is also able to do reverse DNS requests — i.e. "here's an IP address, what's the name?".
We can use that to find the name of the name server we just queried.
$ nslookup 10.1.74.10 Server: ns1.usna.edu Address: 10.1.74.10
From this we see that the name server at
10.1.74.10 has the name
Querying Other Name servers.
nslookup will query the name server listed by the call to
ipconfig /all to do DNS lookups.
However, if you call
nslookup with a second argument that is the name or IP address of a name server,
nslookup will query that name server instead. So, for example:
$ nslookup www.google.com 188.8.131.52
... actually causes my host to contact
184.108.40.206 to resolve the name
However, if I run this request inside the USNA network, it can't complete, because (for security reasons), USNA does not want DNS requests to be fulfilled by outside (potentially untrusted) name servers.
This is another example of by using a service you are opening your self up to a vulnerability.
DNS like most of the protocols in the TCP/IP Stack accept the first reply received.
This means that protocol designers and tool developers have to take extra steps to ensure that a request received is valid.
Name Resolution in Action. It's worthwhile thinking a bit about what happens when you send your browser to a website. When you enter
http://www.martinguitar.com/in your browser's address bar, the browser is supposed to send a request to the web server
www.martinguitar.com(specifically an HTTP GET request, more to follow). But that can't happen until the browser finds out what IP address goes with that name. In fact, you can enter the IP address directly into the browser's address bar, like this
http://220.127.116.11... and you'll get the website. If you use the symbolic name, however, the browser first makes a DNS request to a name server to get the IP address for the name
www.martinguitars.com, and then actually sends the HTTP GET request to the web server. If you don't have access to a name server, and you know only a web site's URL, not its IP address, you can't access the web site!
DNS servers listen on port 53. DNS uses UDP rather than TCP. If DNS is so crucial to Internet communications, then why does it use an unreliable protocol like UDP. Well, the answer is in the question, since DNS is so crucial to Internet communications, and is used a lot by a majority of hosts on the Internet, then the protocol needs to be efficient. If DNS used TCP, then the overhead associated with TCP would severely reduce the efficiency of networking. This should become clearer once we go through how DNS resolves an IP address from a domain name.
DNS is a complicated system, with millions of servers spread out across the earth. Suppose you query your local name server for www.foo.com. The general scheme works like this: There are 13 root name servers. If your name server doesn't know the IP address of www.foo.com, it sends a query to one of the 13 root name servers, such as the root server for .com. The .com name server will send you to the name server for the foo.com domain, and that name server ought to be able to give the IP address for www.foo.com. If this much traffic was required for every name resolution, the Internet would be a much slower place. Instead, name servers remember in a cache the answers to queries they've answered recently.
From a security perspective it's crucial that DNS works properly. If the name bankwithallmymoney.com gets resolved incorrectly to an IP address owned by a bad guy, I could be in trouble. He could put up a dummy web page that looks just like bankwithallmymoney.com's, but which isn't and he could perhaps steal my password ... and then my money.
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the Application Layer protocol that the web is based on. HTTP servers (web servers) use TCP and listen on port 80. HTTP clients are called web browsers. HTTPS (HTTP Secure) is a more secure version of HTTP. It employs Transport Layer Security (TLS), a set of cryptographic protocols which support authentication as well as encryption of the Application Layer HTTP data. HTTP traffic is sent in the clear, meaning that anyone can read the data in the message if they receive the message. Remember a packet will flow through many networks as it makes it way from Host A to Host B. HTTPS on the other hand encrypts (we will talk about encryption later in the course) the data such that only someone that knows the key can read the contents of the message. If you don't have the key to decrypt an encrypted message, then you cannot make sense of the data. You may be able to receive, and read the encrypted data, but encrypted data is gibberish.
The protocol behind the web, HTTP, governs the interaction between web servers and web clients (browsers). Browsers can send messages like
GET /prices.html HTTP/1.1
to a server (of course you need its IP address to send it this message!).
In the above GET request
/prices.html is the path and file name of the file the web client is requesting to view.
The web server process accepts the GET requests, and looks in its file system for
The HTTP protocol specifies exactly what this can look like and what response the request should elicit from the server.
For example, the server might send back the message
HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found
which indicates that it did not have a file
prices.html available to send.
SSH (Secure SHell) is a protocol that allows secure, remote command shell access.
In this setting, secure means preserving confidentiality and authentication.
Nobody snooping on the network traffic can read off your password or other information that gets sent back and forth during the session.
Generally, you use ssh like this:
ssh username@hostname, e.g.
You'll be prompted for a password, and assuming you give the right one, you have a shell on the remote host (flux.academy.usna.edu in the example).
SSH is a client/server system just like the web (HTTP). For example, there
is an ssh-server process running on rona listening on port 22 for connection requests. On Windows,
the ssh command (which is actually an alias for a program
called PuTTY) is an ssh-client. When you run it
the client resolves the name
to an IP address, makes a TCP connection to that IP address on
port 22, and from
that point on follows (communicates using) the SSH protocol
with the server process to carry out your shell commands.
So, you already have an ssh client installed on your machine (PuTTY).
You just need to pull up a Windows shell and start up the ssh
rdesktop. The Windows RDP client is just called "Remote Desktop Connection". Just like HTTP, DNS, and SSH, this is a client/server system. The Windows host you want to connect to must have an RDP server process listening to port 3389 waiting for connection requests from remote desktop clients.
** Same port as SSH because it actually uses SSH
*** Means you can join a network "on the fly" and get assigned an IP address and find a DNS server
**** Port 67 is for the server, 68 is for the client