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Stockdale Center for Ethical Leadership
Stockdale Center for Ethical Leadership

Comparative Warfare Ethics

Preliminaries

 Religion and violence – relationships?

  • Chris Eberle, “God and War: An Exploration” (unpublished)
  • David Luban, “How Bloodthirsty is Religion?” (unpublished)
  • Vesselin Popovski, “Religion and War,” in Vesselin Popovski, Gregory M. Reichberg, and Nicholas Turner, eds., World Religions and the Norms of War (United Nations, 2009)
  • Mark Juergensmeyer and Margo Kitts, “Why Is Religion Violent and Violence Religious?” and “The Connection Between War and Sacrifice,” in Mark Juergensmeyer and Margo Kitts, eds., Princeton Readings in Religion and Violence (Princeton, 2011)
  • James K. Wellman, Jr. and Kyoko Tokuno, “Is Religious Violence Inevitable?”, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion (2004)
  • William T. Canavaugh, “The Violence of Religion: Examining the Prevalent Myth,” working paper (2004)
  • _______, “Does religion Cause Violence?” (2006)
  • David Martin, Does Christianity Cause War? (Regent, 1997)
  • Stanley Fish, “Does Reason Know What It Is Missing?”, New York Times, 12 April 2013

Comparative religious ethics – how?

  • Scott Davis, “Comparative Ethics and the Crucible of War,” in Torkel Brekke, The Ethics of War in Asians Civilizations: A Comparative Perspective (Routledge, 2006)
  • Henrick Syse, “Afterward: Ethics Across Borders,” in Torkel Brekke, ed., The Ethics of War in Asians Civilizations: A Comparative Perspective (Routledge, 2006)
  • Aaron Stalnaker, “Comparative Religious Ethics and the Problem of ‘Human Nature,’” Journal of Religious Ethics (2005)
  • John Kelsay, “The Present State of the Comparative Study of Religious Ethics: An Update,” Journal of Religious Ethics (2012)
  • Willard G. Oxtoby and Allan F. Segal, A Concise Introduction to the World’s Religions (Oxford, 2012)

Chinese and Confucian warfare ethics

  • Phillip Karber, ed., “China’s Military Thought on Strategy & Ethics” (unpublished)
  • Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui, “Unrestricted Warfare”
  • Tony Corn, “Peaceful Rise through Unrestricted Warfare: Grand Strategy with Chinese Characteristics,” smallwarsjournal.com
  • Andrew Scobell, China’s Use of Military Force: Beyond the Great Wall and the Forced March (Cambridge, 2003)
  • PC Lo, “The Art of War Corpus and Chinese Warfare Ethics Past and Present,” Journal of Religious Ethics (2012)
  • _______, “Warfare Ethics in Sun Tzu’s Art of War? Historical Controversies and Contemporary Perspectives,” Journal of Military Ethics (2012)
  • Sumner Twiss and Jonathan Chan, “The Classical Confucian Tradition on the Legitimate Use of Military Force,” Journal of Military Ethics (2012)
  • _______, “Classical Confucianism, Punitive Expeditions, and Humanitarian Intervention,” Journal of Military Ethics (2012)
  • Aaron Stalnaker, “Xunzi’s Moral Analysis of War and Some of Its Contemporary Implications,” Journal of Military Ethics (2012)
  • Mark E. Lewis, “The Just War in Early China,” in Torkel Brekke, ed., The Ethics of War in Asian Civilizations: A Comparative Perspective (Routledge, 2006)
  • Confucius, Analects, Edward Singerland, tr. (Hackett, 2003)
  • Phillip J. Ivanhoe, Ethics in the Confucian Tradition: The Thought of Mengzi and Wang Yangming (Hackett, 2002)
  • Mao, Zedong 毛澤東. “On Tactics Against Japanese Imperialism.”  In Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung.  Vol. 1.  Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1965, pp.128-53.
  • Mao, Zedong 毛澤東.   “Problems of Strategy in China’s Revolutionary War.”  In Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung.  Vol. 1.  Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1965, pp.179-254.
  • Mao, Zedong 毛澤東. “On Protracted War.”  In Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung.  Vol. 2.  Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1965, pp.113-94.
  • Ni Lexiongin, “The Implications of Ancient Chinese Military Culture for World Peace,” in Daniel A. Bell, ed., Confucian Political Ethics (Princeton, 2007)
  • Daniel A. Bell, “Just War and Confucianism: Implications for the Contemporary World,” in Daniel A. Bell, ed., Confucian Political Ethics (Princeton, 2007)
  • David A. Graff, “The Chinese Concept of Righteous War,” in The Prism of Just War: Asian and Western Perspectives on the Legitimate Use of Military Force (Ashgate, 2010)
  • Thomas M. Kane, “Inauspicious Tools: Chinese Thought on the Morality of War,” in Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in Comparative Perspective (Ashgate, 2003)

Buddhist warfare ethics

  • Peter Harvey, An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics (Cambridge, 2000)
  • Michael K. Jerryson and Merk Juergensmeyer, Buddhist Warfare (Oxford, 2010)
  • Mahinda Deegalle, “Norms of War in Theravada Buddhism,” in Vesselin Popovski, Gregory M. Reichberg, and Nicholas Turner, eds., World Religions and the Norms of War (United Nations, 2009)
  • Tessa Bartholomeusz, In Defense of Dharma: Just-War Ideology in Buddhist Sri Lanka (Routledge, 2002)
  • Tessa Bartholomeusz, “In Defense of Dharma: Just War Ideology in Buddhist Sri Lanka,” in Torkel Brekke, The Ethics of War in Asians Civilizations: A Comparative Perspective (Routledge, 2006)
  • Elizabeth J. Harris, “Buddhism and the Justification of War: A Case Study from Sri Lanka,” in Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in Comparative Perspective (Ashgate, 2003)

Islamic warfare ethics

  • John Kelsay, Arguing the Just War in Islam (Harvard, 2009)
  • John Kelsay, “Arguments Concerning Resistance in Contemporary Islam,” in Richard Sorabji and David Rodin, eds., The Ethics of War: Shared Problems in Different Traditions (Ashgate, 2006)
  • John Kelsay, “Islamic Tradition and the Justice of War,” in Torkel Brekke, The Ethics of War in Asians Civilizations: A Comparative Perspective (Routledge, 2006)
  • John Kelsay, “War, Peace and the Imperatives of Justice in Islamic Perspective: What Do the 11 September 2001 Attacks Tell Us About Islam and the Just War Tradition?”, in Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in Comparative Perspective (Ashgate, 2003)
  • John Kelsay, “Sunni Islam and the Regulation of War,” in Howard Hensel, ed., The Prism of Just War: Asian and Western Perspectives on the Legitimate Use of Military Force (Ashgate, 2010)  
  • Rudolph Peters, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam (Markus Wiener, 2007)
  • Raymond Ibrahim, ed., The Al Qaeda Reader (Broadway Books, 2007)
  • Andrew Bostom, The Legacy of Jihad (Prometheus Books, 2008)
  • John C. Calvert, Islamism: A Documentary and Reference Guide (Greenwood, 2007)
  • Khaled Abou El Fadl, “The Rules of Killing at War: An Inquiry Into Classical Sources,” The Muslim World (1999)
  • Frank R. Trombley, “The Arabs, the Byzantine State and the Islamic Law of War (7th-10 Centuries CE),” in Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in Comparative Perspective (Ashgate, 2003)
  • Amira Sonbol, “Norms of War in Sunni Islam,” in Vesselin Popovski, Gregory M. Reichberg, and Nicholas Turner, eds., World Religions and the Norms of War (United Nations, 2009)
  • Davood Feirahi, “Norms of War in Shia Islam,” in Vesselin Popovski, Gregory M. Reichberg, and Nicholas Turner, eds., World Religions and the Norms of War (United Nations, 2009)
  • Cyrus Masroori, “Russian Imperialism and Jihad: Early 19th-Century Persian Texts on Just War.” Journal of Church and State (2004)
  • Valerie Morkevicius, Shi’i Perspectives on War,” in Howard Hensel, ed., The Prism of Just War: Asian and Western Perspectives on the Legitimate Use of Military Force (Ashgate, 2010)

Russian and Eastern Orthodox warfare ethics

  • “The Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation,” 2010
  • Paul Robinson, “The Justification of War in Russian History and Philosophy,” in Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in Comparative Perspective (Ashgate, 2003)
  • Alexander F.C. Webster, “Justifiable War in Eastern Orthodox Christianity,” in Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in Comparative Perspective (Ashgate, 2003)
  • Yuri Stoyanov, “Norms of War in Eastern Orthodox Christianity,” in Vesselin Popovski, Gregory M. Reichberg, and Nicholas Turner, eds., World Religions and the Norms of War (United Nations, 2009)
  • Angeliki E. Laiou, “On Just War in Byzantium,” John Haldon, ed. Byzantine Warfare (Ashgate, 2007)

Indian and Hindu warfare ethics 

  • Nick Allen, “Just War in the Mahābhārata,” in Richard Sorabji and David Rodin, eds., The Ethics of War: Shared Problems in Different Traditions (Ashgate, 2006)
  • Torkel Brekke, “Between Prudence and Heroism: Ethics of War in the Hindu Tradition,” in Torkel Brekke, The Ethics of War in Asians Civilizations: A Comparative Perspective (Routledge, 2006)
  • Kaushik Roy, “Just and Unjust War in Hindu Philosophy,” Journal of Military Ethics (2007)
  • Kaushik Roy, Hinduism and the Ethics of Warfare in South Asia (Cambridge, 2012)
  • Kaushik Roy, “Norms of War in Hinduism,” in Vesselin Popovski, Gregory M. Reichberg, and Nicholas Turner, eds., World Religions and the Norms of War (United Nations, 2009)
  • Francis X. Clooney S.J., “Pain but not Harm: Some Classical Resources Toward a Hindu Just War Theory,” in Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in Comparative Perspective (Ashgate, 2003)
  • Gurharpal Singh, “Sikhism and Just War,” in Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in Comparative Perspective (Ashgate, 2003)
  • Valerie Morkevicius, “Hindu Perspectives on War,” in Howard Hensel, ed., The Prism of Just War: Asian and Western Perspectives on the Legitimate Use of Military Force (Ashgate, 2010)

Japanese warfare ethics

  • Karl Friday, “Might Makes Right: Just War and Just Warfare in Early Medieval Japan,” in Torkel Brekke, ed., The Ethics of War in Asian Civilizations: A Comparative Perspective (Routledge, 2006)
  • Robert Kisala, “Norms of War in Japanese Religion,” in Vesselin Popovski, Gregory M. Reichberg, and Nicholas Turner, eds., World Religions and the Norms of War (United Nations, 2009)
  • Edward A. Olsen, “Japanese Perceptions of Just War,” in Howard Hensel, ed., The Prism of Just War: Asian and Western Perspectives on the Legitimate Use of Military Force (Ashgate, 2010)
  • Edward A. Olsen, “Korean Perceptions of Just War,” in Howard Hensel, ed., The Prism of Just War: Asian and Western Perspectives on the Legitimate Use of Military Force (Ashgate, 2010)
  • Saburo Ienaga, “The Glorification of War in Japanese Education,” International Security (1993-94)
  • Tsunetomo Yamamoto, Bushido: The Way of the Samuri (Square One, 2001)
  • Soho Machida, “The Religious Traditions of Japan,” Henrik Syse, Greg Reichberg, and Nicole M. Hartwell, Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions (Cambride, 2014)

Israeli and Jewish warfare ethics

  • Asa Kasher, “Jewish Ethics and War,” in Elliot N. Dorff and Jonathan K. Crane, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Ethics and Morality (OUP, 2012)
  • Norman Solomon, “The Ethics of War: Judaism,” in Richard Sorabji and David Rodin, eds., The Ethics of War: Shared Problems in Different Traditions (Ashgate, 2006)
  • Norman Solomon, “The Ethics of War in Judaism,” in Torkel Brekke, The Ethics of War in Asians Civilizations: A Comparative Perspective (Routledge, 2006)
  • Jack Bemporad, “Norms of War in Judaism,” in Vesselin Popovski, Gregory M. Reichberg, and Nicholas Turner, eds., World Religions and the Norms of War (United Nations, 2009)
  • Reuven Firestone, Holy War in Judaism: The Fall and Rise of a Controversial Idea (OUP, 2012)
  • Everett Gendler, “War and the Jewish Tradition,” in Menachem Marc Kellner, ed., Contemporary Jewish Ethics (Sanhedrin Press, 1978)
  • George Wilkes, “Judaism and Justice in War,” in Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in Comparative Perspective (Ashgate, 2003)
  • Lawrence Schiffman and Joel Wolowelsky, War and Peace in the Jewish Tradition (Yeshiva University Press, 2004)
  • Michael Walzer, In God's Shadow: Politics in the Hebrew Bible (Yale, 2012)
  • Stuart Cohen, “The Re-Discovery of Orthodox Jewish Laws Relating to the Military and War ( Hilkhot Tzavah U-Milchamah ) in Contemporary Israel: Trends and Implications,” Israel Studies (Summer 2007)
  • Stuart Cohen, “‘Unlicensed’ War in the Jewish Tradition: Sources, Consequences, and Implications,” in Journal of Military Ethics (2005)
  • John Howard Yoder, “Texts that Serve of Texts that Summon: A Response to Michael Walzer,” Journal of Religious Ethics (2001)

African warfare ethics

  • Alexander Moseley, “The Rules of War in Sub-Saharan Africa,” in Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in Comparative Perspective (Ashgate, 2003)

Other

  • Valerie Ona Morkevicius, “Norms of War in Protestant Christianity,” in Vesselin Popovski, Gregory M. Reichberg, and Nicholas Turner, eds., World Religions and the Norms of War (United Nations, 2009)
  • Gregory M. Reichberg, “Norms of War in Catholic Christianity,” in Vesselin Popovski, Gregory M. Reichberg, and Nicholas Turner, eds., World Religions and the Norms of War (United Nations, 2009)