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Stockdale Center for Ethical Leadership
Stockdale Center for Ethical Leadership

Intellectual History of the Western Just War Tradition

Ancient and Early Christian

 Context

  • Gregory A. Raymond, “The Greco-Roman Roots of the Western Just War Tradition,” in Howard M. Hensel, ed., The Prism of Just War: Asian and Western Perspectives on the Legitimate Use of Military Force (Ashgate, 2010)
  • Josiah Ober, “Classical Greek Times,” in Michael Howard, George J. Andreopoulos and Mark Shulman, eds., The Laws of War: Constraints on Warfare in the Western World (Yale, 1994)

 Greek

  • Thucydides, Reichberg et al., Chapter 1
  • Plato, Reichberg et al., Chapter 2
  • Aristotle, Reichberg et al., Chapter 3

 Roman

  • Roman ius fetiale, Reichberg et al., Chapter 4
  • Cicero, Reichberg et al., Chapter 5

 Early Christian

  • Patristic, Reichberg et al., Chapter 6
  • Augustine, Reichberg et al., Chapter 7

 Medieval

 Holy War

  • Peace movements, Reichberg et al., Chapter 8
  • Crusades, Reichberg et al., Chapter 9

 Canonists

  • Gratian and the Decretists, Reichberg et al., Chapter 10
  • Raymond of Penafort and William of Rennes, Reichberg et al., Chapter 12
  • Innocent IV, Reichberg et al., Chapter 13
  • Hostiensis, Reichberg et al., Chapter 15

 Theologians

  • Alexander of Hales, Reichberg et al., Chapter 14
  • Aquinas, Reichberg et al., Chapter 16

 Tyranny & Chivalry

  • John of Salisbury, Reichberg et al., Chapter 11
  • Christine de Pizan, Reichberg et al., Chapter 19

 Late Scholastic and Reformation

 Late Scholastic

  • Cajetan, Reichberg et al., Chapter 22
  • Francisco de Vitoria, “On the American Indians” and “On the Laws of War,” in Anthony Pagden and Jeremy Lawrance, eds., Francisco de Vitoria: Political Writings (Cambridge, 1991)
  • Luis de Molina, Reichberg et al., Chapter 28
  • Francisco Suarez, Reichberg et al., Chapter 29

 Reformation and Protestant

  • Martin Luther & Jean Calvin, Reichberg et al., Chapter 25
  • Radical Reformation, Reichberg et al., Chapter 26
  • Alberico Gentili, Reichberg et al., Chapter 30
  • Richard Tuck, The Rights of War and Peace: Political Thought and the International Order from Grotius to Kant (Oxford, 1999), Chapter 3
  • Hugo Grotius, Reichberg et al., Chapter 32

 Modern

  • Hobbes, Reichberg et al., Chapter 33
  • Tuck, Chapter 4
  • Pufendorf, Reichberg et al., Chapter 35
  • Tuck, Chapter 5
  • Locke, Reichberg et al., Chapter 36
  • Wolff, Reichberg et al., Chapter 37
  • Montesquieu, Reichberg et al., Chapter 38
  • Vattel, Reichberg et al., Chapter 40
  • Tuck, Chapter 6
  • Rousseau, Reichberg et al., Chapter 39
  • Immanuel Kant, Reichberg et al., Chapter 41
  • Tuck, Chapter 7
  • Daniel Webster, Reichberg et al., Chapter 44
  • Lieber, Reichberg et al., Chapter 45
  • Mill, “A Few Words on Non-intervention”

 Twentieth Century

  • Anscombe, ""War and Murder"
  • Anscombe, “Mr. Truman's Degree"
  • Ramsey (on nuclear weapons), Reichberg et al., Chapter 51
  • National Conference of Catholic Bishops, Reichberg et al., Chapter 57
  • Selections from Just and Unjust Wars

 Contemporary

 Justified killing: double effect

 Justified killing: forfeiture

  • Christopher Heath Wellmen, “The Forfeiture Theory of Punishment,” Ethics 122 (2): 371-393 (2012)
  • David Rodin, selections from War and Self-Defense (2002)

 Punishment as a just cause

  • James Turner Johnson, “The Idea of Defense in Historical and Contemporary Thinking about Just War,” Journal of Religious Ethics (2008)
  • David Luban, “War as Punishment,” Philosophy & Public Affairs (2011)

 Right intention: does it matter; which intention?

  • M. Scanlon, “The Proper Role of Intention in Military Decision Making,” in Roger Wertheimer, ed., Empowering Our Military Conscience: Transforming Just War Theory and Military Moral Education (Ashgate , 2010)
  • Annalisa Koeman, “A Realistic and Effective Constraint on the Resort to Force? Pre-commitment to Jus in Bello and Jus Post Bellum as Part of the Criterion of Right Intention,” Journal of Military Ethics (2007)

 Preventive war

  • Allen E. Buchanan. “Justifying Preventive War,” Shue and Rodin, eds., Preemption: Military Action and Moral Justification (Oxford, 2007)
  • Neta C. Crawford, “The False Promise of Collective Security Through Preventive War,” ibid.
  • David Rodin, “The Problem with Prevention,” ibid.
  • Henry Shue, “What Would A Justified Preventive Military Attack Look Like?”, ibid.
  • David Luban, “Preventive War and Human Rights,” ibid.

Necessity ad bellum

  • Seth Lazar, “Necessity in Self-defense and War,” Philosophy and Public Affairs (2012)

 Rreasonable chance of success

  • Daniel Statman, “On the Success Condition for Legitimate Self‐Defense,” Ethics (2008)

 Proportionality ad bellum

  • Thomas Hurka, “Proportionality and the Morality of War,” Philosophy and Public Affairs (2005)
  • Paul Gilbert, “Proportionality in the Conduct of War,” Journal of Military Ethics (2005)

 Jus post bellum

  • Brian Orend, “Justice After War,” Ethics & International Affairs (2002)
  • Gary Bass, “Jus Post Bellum,” Philosophy & Public Affairs (2004)
  • Doug McCready, “Ending the War Right: Jus Post Bellum and the Just War Tradition,” Journal of Military Ethics (2009)