Scheme standard's list information

**Symbols**-
In Scheme, we have an unusual datatype: the symbol. For
example. Suppose I define the function
`fib`

as we would for Lab 1. If I ask the interpreter to evaluate the "symbol"`fib`

, it'll tell me that`fib`

is a name for a function:

So, the symbol**> fib**#<procedure:fib>**>**`fib`

has a special meaning. We can tell the interpreter not to evaluate the symbol by "quoting" it, which means either writing`(quote fib)`

or, more commonly, by putting a**'**in front of the symbol, i.e.`'fib`

. Here's a sample interpreter session:

All this is strange, I know, but here's an example. The function**> fib**#<procedure:fib>**> 'fib**fib**>**`inches`

defined below does some basic conversions into inches, and returns the symbol`error`

if the input units are unknown. [**Note:**`equal?`

is sort of a universal equality test in scheme. It works with symbols and with lists (see below). The`=`

operator only works with numbers.]:**> (define (inches x u) (if (equal? u 'inches) x (if (equal? u 'feet) (* x 12) (if (equal? u 'yards) (* x 36) 'error))))****> (inches 0.5 'feet)**6.0**> (inches 0.5 'yards)**18.0**> (inches 0.5 'meters)**error**> (inches 0.5 yards)**reference to undefined identifier: yards**>**`yards`

- the interpreter tries to evaluate the symbol yards in order to get the arguements for`inches`

, and of course that name is undefined. Note: this function definition would be a lot cleaner if we used`cond`

!**Problem: Currency Conversion**

Write a function`convert`

that takes an amount a "from" currency and a "to" currency and converts the amount of the "from" currency to the monetary equivalent in the "to" currency. The currencies you use should be`euro`

,`usdollar`

,`yen`

, and`ukpound`

.> (convert 3.50 'usdollar 'euro) 2.83378 > (convert 20.00 'yen 'ukpound) 0.10462

Here are the rates in terms of dollars:1 US Dollar = 0.56101 British Pound 1 British Pound (GBP) = 1.78250 US Dollar 1 US Dollar = 0.80965 Euro 1 Euro (EUR) = 1.23510 US Dollar (USD) 1 US Dollar = 107.290 Japanese Yen 1 Japanese Yen (JPY) = 0.009321 US Dollar

**Lists**-
The primary data structure in scheme is the list. In fact,
everything you've entered into Scheme thus far is a list
(duh), only you've always asked the compiler to evaluate that
list. Lists stay lists when you instruct the interpreter
*not*to evaluate them ... and of course we already know how to tell the interpreter not to evaluate something:

So, we can easily construct any list we want by simply quoting and typing away. For example**> (+ 3 4 5)**12**> '(+ 3 4 5)**(+ 3 4 5)**>**> '(A B C) (A B C) > '( 1 (1) ((1))) ( 1 (1) ((1))) > '(( + 3 4) (* 3 4)) (( + 3 4) (* 3 4)) >

This last example is an interesting one. Suppose we were looking to have`(7 12)`

returned instead of`(( + 3 4) (* 3 4))`

? In other words, suppose we wanted the two subexpressions in the list to be evaluated? Well, by quoting the list, we ensure that nothing gets evaluated. However, there's an alternative to quoting. We can construct lists using the`list`

function, which takes its arguments and forms a list from them.> (list (+ 3 4) (* 3 4)) (7 12) >

Since`(+ 3 4)`

and`(* 3 4)`

are unquoted arguments to functions, they're evaluted before they're passed on to the list function. Thus,`list`

is passed 7 and 12, and forms a list with those two values. This is useful if you want a function to return more than one value. You can simply have it return a list of values.**Example:**Write a function`zeros`

that computes the zeros of a quadratic polynomial*a x^2 + b x + c*. Assume`zeros`

is simply passed a, b and c. You can use the quadratic formula to compute the roots: (-b +/- sqrt(b^2 - 4 a c)) / (2a). We actually have two values to return, because of the +/-. Here's how you might implement`zeros`

:(define (zeros a b c) (let ((d (sqrt (- (* b b) (* 4 a c)))) (nb (- b))) (list (/ (+ nb d) (* 2 a)) (/ (- nb d) (* 2 a)))))

`list`

, is that the length of the list you return is fixed. What if we wanted to create a function that returns lists, but we don't know ahead of time how long a list? What if we'll want to simply keep adding things to the list as we go along? The`cons`

function takes an object x and a list L and returns the list you get by adding x to the front of L.> (cons 3 '(5 9 11)) (3 5 9 11) > (cons 3 '( (5) (7) (9) )) (3 (5) (7) (9)) > (cons '(1 1) '( (1 1 1) (1 1 1 1) )) ((1 1) (1 1 1) (1 1 1 1)) > (cons 'the '()) (the) > (cons 'the (cons 'end '())) (the end) >

Notice that we can construct lists by multiple cons's starting with`'()`

, the empty list.**Example:**Write a function`range`

that takes two arguments i and j and returns the list i, i+1, i+2, ..., j.> (define (range i j) (if (> i j) '() (cons i (range (+ i 1) j)))) > (range 1 10) (1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10) >

Interestingly, all we'd have to do is to stick a + at the head of this list and we'd have an expression for the sum of the first 10 integers.> (cons '+ (range 1 10)) (+ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10) >

The only problem, is that what we have is data, a list like any other. The interpreter doesn't look to see that this particular list would make sense as an expression to be evaluated. However, we can tell the interpreter to evaluate a piece of data as if it were an expression typed into the interpreter with the`eval`

function.> (eval (cons '+ (range 1 10))) 55 >

In other words, we can take a piece of data, and turn it into a piece of code! That's pretty cool.There's one more standard function for building lists:

`append`

. Appending lists means building a new lists whose elements are those of the first list followed by those of the second list. For example:> (append '(1 2 3) '(a b c)) (1 2 3 a b c)

Not surprisingly,`append`

can take an arbitrary number of list arguments, e.g.> (append '(a) '(b c) '(d e f) '(g h i j)) (a b c d e f g h i j)

It's important to understand the difference between`list`

,`cons`

and`append`

. Keep this example in mind:> (list '(a b c) '(1 2 3)) ((a b c) (1 2 3)) > (cons '(a b c) '(1 2 3)) ((a b c) 1 2 3) > (append '(a b c) '(1 2 3)) (a b c 1 2 3)

**Picking lists apart**-
Now that we've seen some examples of returning lists from
function, it's obvious to ask about passing lists as arguments
into functions. Well, of course, it's no different than
passing other kinds of arguments to functions. However, to do
something with a list that's passed as an argument, you need
to be able to pick the list apart. The two functions you need
for this are
`car`

, which returns the first element in a list, and`cdr`

, which returns the sublist of everything but the first element in the list. Performing either of these on an empty list is a bad idea!> (car '(a b 4 () 2.1)) a > (cdr '(a b 4 () 2.1)) (b 4 () 2.1) >

Together, car and cdr are kind of like an inverse cons:> (let ((L '(a b c d))) (cons (car L) (cdr L))) (a b c d) >

Now we can do a whole bunch of interesting things with lists.**Note:**To test whether or not a list is empty, you can either use the predicate (function returning T/F)`null?`

like this:`(if (null? L) ...)`

, or use the general equality predicate`equal?`

like this:`(if (equal? L '()) ...)`

. Here's a function for computing the length of a list:(define (my-length L) (if (equal? L '()) 0 (+ 1 (my-length (cdr L)))))

although,`length`

already exists in scheme! Here's a function that sums all the even numbers in a list. Note: even? and odd? are builtin to Scheme.(define (sum-even L) (if (equal? L '()) 0 (let ((n (sum-even (cdr L)))) (if (even? (car L)) (+ n (car L)) n))))

Things get really interesting when we have nested lists. It takes cars of cdrs of cars of cdrs to get to data sometimes! **Aside: Global variables scheme style**-
So far we've created functions whose names are global
identifiers, meaning that the function's name is known to the
interpreter from the time of the function's definition until
the interpreter exits or is reset. We can also define global
identifiers for data, i.e. global variables.
Don't go nuts with this kind of thing though. I'm bringing it
up mostly to play with lists a little more easily.
In Scheme you end up doing things like "the car of the cdr of the car of L", which gets to be quite a hassle. Scheme has a nice abbreviation for such nested calls. An expression like

`(car (car (cdr L)))`

can be written equivalently as`(caadr L)`

. Here's how it works:`(car (car (cdr L)))`

condenses to`(caadr L)`

> (define L '( (1 2 3) (a b c) ((x) (x x) (x x x)) )) > (car L) (1 2 3) > (car (cdr L)) (a b c) > (car (car (cdr L))) a > (caadr L) a > (car (cdr (cdr (car L)))) 3 > (caddar L) 3 >

**List Problem Set**-
It is impossible to overstate the importance of lists in
Scheme!
What follows are a series of excercises to give you some
practice using them. Remember: You need to use recursion to
cycle through the elements of a list! ... Sorry about that.
**Tips**-
Write a program called
`tip`

that takes an amount and returns a list of two values, the first being the amount plus a 15% tip, the second the amount plus a twenty percent tip.> (tip 30) (34.5 36.0) >

**List of Squares**-
Write a function
`squares`

that takes integers i and j and returns list of the squares i^2, (i+1)^2, ..., (j-1)^2, j^2.> (squares 2 12) (4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 121 144) >

**More tips**-
Write a function called
`tip-range`

that takes an amount, and two integers defining a range of tip percentages and prints the amount + tip for each integer percentage in the range.> (tip-range 34.50 10 25) (37.95 38.295 38.64 38.985 39.33 39.675 40.02 40.365 40.71 41.055 41.4 41.745 42.09 42.435 42.78 43.125) >

**Simple List Pick Aparts**-
Write a function called sum-abs that takes a list of numbers
and returns the sum of the absolute values of the elements in
the list. Note: abs is the absolute value function in
scheme!
(sum-abs '(-3 2 11 -5)) 21

**Nested Lists, simple Pick Aparts**-
If you're faced with nested lists, you sometimes need cars of
cdrs, and cdrs of cars, and so forth.
> (define L '( (4 a) (3 x) (3 11 4))) > (car (cdr L)) (3 x) > (car (cdr (car (cdr L)))) x >

Define L to be the following ugly list:`( (a x 2) (("the") b c) (z 12))`

. In other words, do the following:> (define L '( (a x 2) (("the") b c) (z 12)))

Now, write car/cdr expressions to pick apart L to get the following values (save each of these in your definition file -- put a comment next to each one explaining what it is):- the
`a`

in L - the
`"the"`

in L - the
`12`

in L

- the
**Count cash!**-
Write a function called
`sum-cash`

that returns the value in US dollars of a collection of amounts of different currencies (same currencies as above). The amounts will be given in a list L, such that each element of L is itself a list, whose first element is an amount and whose second element is a currency name. So, for example,( (12.20 usdollar) (340 yen) (8.50 euro) )

as an arguement to`sum-cash`

would mean adding 12.20 dollars, 340 yen and 8.50 euros, and giving the total in dollars. Here's an example:> (sum-cash '((12.20 usdollar) (340 yen) (8.50 euro))) 25.86749 >

**Top-down design in Scheme: standard deviation**-
Write a function called
`std-dev`

that takes a list of numbers and returns their standard deviation. (Recall: std dev of x1, x2, ..., xn is__________________________________________ / /(x1 - u)^2 + (x2 - u)^2 + ... + (xn - u)^2 / ------------------------------------------ \/ n - 1

... where u is the average of x1, x2, ..., xn. When you write this function, use top-down design. In scheme this means writing the std-dev function using functions you wish were already defined, then going back and defining them later.**Example:**> (std-dev '(34 18 25 23 29 11 28 24 27 29)) 6.460134157533676

Christopher W Brown Last modified: Mon Aug 31 09:26:34 EDT 2009