Overview

Because of the calendar and the final practicum, this is our last lab of the year! We've got a number of things I'd like to hit while we have the chance.

Part 1: C-style strings

The C++ type string is not a fundamental C++ type, but rather a struct defined in the string library. As we have seen from time-to-time, there is another kind of string in C++, the C-style string. C-style strings are also not a fundamental type, but are also not structs. A C-style string is simply an array of characters (type char*) with the requirement that the "null character", string literal '\0', occur in the array. The null character denotes the end of the string represented by the array of characters, though not necessarily the end of the array. Anything after the '\0' is ignored when viewing the array as a string. So, for example, the string literal "Hello World!" (string literals are C-style strings) is actually the array
H e l l o   W o r l d ! \0
... although it could just as easily be
H e l l o   W o r l d ! \0 X % 2 g *
Since everything after the '\0' is ignored. Now, given this discussion, you may get the idea that we could write:
char * s = "Hello World!";
However, that ellicit's a stern warning from the compiler, because of some C/C++ ugliness that we haven't broached yet: const. The presence of const in a type declaration means that the object is not allowed to be modified. So, for example, if you make the declaration const int n = 12;, you can write n*4 or cout << n, but not n++, since that would be modifying n. The characters in a string literal are not allowed to be modified, and that fact needs to be part of the declaration. Thus, we are supposed to write:
const char * s = "Hello World!";
Don't get psyched out by the const thing: a) you can ignore it and ignore the compiler warnings, and b) it's while string literals are const char *, in lots of contexts we're not handling literals, so it doesn't matter.

Your job is to finish the program below by defining stringLength:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int stringLength(const char * s);

int main()
{
  const char * s = "Hello World!";
  cout << "The length of \"" << s << "\" is "
       << stringLength(s) << endl;
  char * r = reverse(s);
  cout << "The reverse of \"" << s << "\" is \""
       << r << "\"" << endl;
  return 0;
}
... and to define a function "reverse" so that if we add the code
  char * r = reverse(s);
  cout << "The reverse of \"" << s << "\" is \""
       << r << "\"" << endl;
... to main(), we will also see the reverse of the string printed.

Part 2: Time

We are going to continue our look at C by studying some of the functions, structs and types provided by the ctime library. These are certainly useful functions, but that's not the real reason we're looking at them right now. I want you to pay attention to these prototypes and the documentation. You'll see C-style strings, and pointers to single objects being passed around!
Note: you are not familiar with the type time_t, but that's OK. Suffice it to say that it's a type, and it's more or less just an int.
// time() returns the time as the number of seconds since the Epoch, 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000 (UTC).
// If t is non-NULL, the return value is also stored in the memory pointed to by t.
time_t time(time_t *t); 

//The ctime() function takes an argument of data type time_t which represents calendar time.  
//When interpreted as an absolute time value, it represents the number of seconds elapsed 
//since the Epoch, 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000 (UTC). It converts the calendar time  t  into  a
//null-terminated string of the form "Wed Jun 30 21:49:08 1993\n"
//The return value points to a statically allocated string which might be overwritten by 
//subsequent calls to any of the date and time functions.
char *ctime(const time_t *timep);
      
Write a program that will print out information on the current day in exactly this format:
Today is Thursday, 20 November
Of course it should print out the proper date for whatever the actual date is that the user runs the program. I.e., tomorrow it should print out Today is Friday, 21 November. I suggest you start off by simply printing the date/time string produced by ctime for the current date and time, which you get with the time function. I'm purposely not telling you how to use these functions, and I don't want you to simply google for examples: look at the prototypes and documentation and figure out how to call these functions.

Part 3: a "real world" struct

Build on your Part 2 program. I want the user to enter a data/time in the format
12/19/2014 @ 1532
and your program should print out the date in the same format as above, i.e.
That date is Friday, 19 December
The difficulty in doing that is to get a time_t representation of the date the user entered. The function
time_t mktime(struct tm *tm);
from the ctime library does this for us. Using this function, however, is not 100% trivial. First of all, notice that it involves the struct tm. Here's the definition and documentation of that struct.
          struct tm {
               int tm_sec;         /* seconds */
               int tm_min;         /* minutes */
               int tm_hour;        /* hours */
               int tm_mday;        /* day of the month */
               int tm_mon;         /* month */
               int tm_year;        /* year */
               int tm_wday;        /* day of the week */
               int tm_yday;        /* day in the year */
               int tm_isdst;       /* daylight saving time */
           };

       The members of the tm structure are:

       tm_sec    The number of seconds after the minute, normally in the range 0 to 59, but can be up to 60 to allow for leap seconds.
       tm_min    The number of minutes after the hour, in the range 0 to 59.
       tm_hour   The number of hours past midnight, in the range 0 to 23.
       tm_mday   The day of the month, in the range 1 to 31.
       tm_mon    The number of months since January, in the range 0 to 11.
       tm_year   The number of years since 1900.
       tm_wday   The number of days since Sunday, in the range 0 to 6.
       tm_yday   The number of days since January 1, in the range 0 to 365.
       tm_isdst  A flag that indicates whether daylight saving time is in effect  at  the  time  described.
                 The  value  is positive if daylight saving time is in effect, zero if it is not, and nega‐
                 tive if the information is not available.
Second, here's the documentation for mktime:
       The  mktime()  function  converts a broken-down time structure, expressed as local time, to calendar
       time representation.  The function ignores the values supplied by the  caller  in  the  tm_wday  and
       tm_yday  fields.  The value specified in the tm_isdst field informs mktime() whether or not daylight
       saving time (DST) is in effect for the time supplied in the tm structure: a positive value means DST
       is  in effect; zero means that DST is not in effect; and a negative value means that mktime() should
       (use timezone information and system databases to) attempt to determine whether DST is in effect  at
       the specified time.

       The  mktime()  function  modifies the fields of the tm structure as follows: tm_wday and tm_yday are
       set to values determined from the contents of the other fields; if  structure  members  are  outside
       their  valid  interval,  they will be normalized (so that, for example, 40 October is changed into 9
       November); tm_isdst is set (regardless of its initial value) to a positive value or  to  0,  respec‐
       tively, to indicate whether DST is or is not in effect at the specified time.  Calling mktime() also
       sets the external variable tzname with information about the current timezone.

Part 4: linked lists and stuff we're not actually ready for, so don't do this!

For motivation's sake, let's see how we might put all this together with linked lists, which we haven't covered enough to do this stuff yet.

Write a program that reads "logfile" with entries like this:
12/19/2014 @ 1532 Fed the dog.
12/19/2014 @ 1547 Realized I don't have a dog.  What's going on?
12/20/2014 @ 0701 Took cat to the vet.
      
... and allows the user a few basic commands: add, delete, save, print, and quit. Hopefully you see that even if we don't have the linked list skilz to tackle this today, this will soon be within reach. Why do we really want to use a link list to store and manipulate the collection of logfile entries?