Models and Tools Learning Objectives.
The second portion of the course provides theoretical underpinnings for discussing properties of the information
and systems we are trying to protect in the cyber domain. Additionally, there are a few broad categories of tools,
e.g., firewalls, encryption, and hashing, that we combine in different ways to meet desired security goals. Such
a framework allows students to make principled decisions about security. Specific objectives are:
- Information Assurance.
- Explain the DoD Information Assurance (IA) Model ("Pillars of IA") and the "risk equation".
- Apply the IA Model to analyze situations in terms of risk, threats and vulnerabilities.
- Describe cyber attacks in terms of compromise to the pillars of IA.
- Design an access control list (ACL) for an idealized router to achieve a desired offering of services.
- Relate use of a firewall to the pillars of IA.
- Describe a firewall's role in implementing decisions concerning tradeoffs between service and security.
- Authentication and Cryptography.
- Describe and contrast symmetric encryption, asymmetric encryption and hashing and explain
their roles in protecting the Pillars of IA.
- Describe and contrast key management for symmetric and asymmetric encryption.
- Explain and actually use representative symmetric encryption and hashing techniques that
are done "by hand" (e.g., Vigenere Cipher, Rubik's Hash).
- Identify the user's vs. the technology's responsibilities in situations where cryptography is used
- Describe common tools such as AES and MD5, relate their use to Information Assurance,
and demonstrate their use.
- Discuss authentication by password, password attacks, hashing, salt, and password strength.
- Discuss two-factor authentication.
- Explain the workings of attacks such as frequency analysis, chosen plaintext, and man-in-the-middle.
- Describe the purpose of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and how it works; relate PKI to
- Obtain an X.509 Certificate from a Certificate Authority. Explain the guarantee that comes
with a valid certificate, describe reasons a certificate may be invalid, and how user actions
with respect to certificates can affect security.