Gisors campaign of 1198 according to Roger of Howeden.
translated by Henry T. Riley, The Annals of Roger of Hoveden
Summary of events 1193-1198
1193-94: while Richard
was a captive, Philip Augustus with the aid of Prince John seized the English
fortifications in the Vexin that had been built by Henry II. In spring 1193 Gisors and other frontier castles including Neufles surrendered to Philip.
Richard returned to England;
May took a 100 ship fleet from Portsmouth to Normandy.
recovered most of the lost castles on the Norman frontier with the Vexin.
Jan 1194 Peace of Louviers: favors
Richard. Philip recognizes that Richard, as duke of Normandy,
is owed homage and service by the counts of Poitiers.
Spring 1196 Richard invaded Brittany
and his nephew Arthur received asylum with Philip. New coalition formed against
Richard, including Count of Flanders. Richard renounced claim to Toulouse and made a
marriage alliance with its count, Raymond VI. Richard imposed embargo on trade
with Flanders (England
supplied both wool and grain to Flanders)
goal was the conquest of the Vexin rather than the defense of Normandy.
of Chateau-Gaillard and the fortifications at Andelys.
1197: renewal of
hostilities. Richard raided port
of St. Valery, burned
town, and hanged English sailors found on English ships in the harbor loaded
with grain in defiance of the embargo. Ships burned and cargo confiscated. In
July Count Baldwin of Flanders and Richard
made a treaty, after which Richard and Baldwin coordinated attacks on lands
held by Philip. Sept 1197:† truce between Richard and Philip. Richard
continued to build castles and coalitions and prepared for war. Richard
supported election of his nephew Otto of Brunswick (Welf) to kingship of Germany
(vs. Hohenstaufen claimant Philip of Swabia)
Dec 1197 Richard
raised forces for renewed war with Philip, requiring that the barons of England
provide him with 300 knights supplied at their own expense for a yearís
service. Towns were to supply 500 men-at-arms.
Sept 1198: War
began with Count Baldwin of Flanders invading Artois to the south. In response Philip
invaded the Norman Vexin, but was outmaneuvered by Richard and his mercenary
captain Mercadier. Philip retreated to Vernon as Richard now
invaded the French Vexin, capturing castles at Dangu,
Boury, and Courcelles.† French relief army came north from Mantes.
Richard detected army through patrols and decided to attack army as it was in
marching order. This was the battle of Gisors. Philip
fled to the castle
and so many of his men crowded on the bridge leading to the castle that the
bridge collapsed. Twenty knights drowned. Philip was dunked. Richard took 100
knights prisoner, but did not have siege equipment to take Gisors,
so retreated to Dangu.
††† Rigord, Philipís
court poet, attributed Philipís defeat to the displeasure of God for Philip
having allowed Jews into his domain.