Lord Rayleigh's 1916 paper
First get a copy of Rayleigh, Lord, 1916: On convective currents in a horizontal layer of fluid when the
higher temperature is on the under side, Phil. Mag., 32, p. 529-546,
or look up Rayleigh's Scientific Papers, 6, pp. 432-446.
The main goal of the project is to understand Rayleigh's mathematical argument that
explains when a fluid being heated from the bottom experiences instabilities and begins to move in rolls.