Engineering Heat Transfer transfer
J. Alan Adams, Professor Emeritus
United States Naval Academy


This collection of undergraduate level Heat Transfer analyses and solutions constitutes an Engineering Lecture Complement (ELC). It is a tool made possible by Internet technology and can be used to increase classroom productivity, teaching flexibility and personalized learning.

The formal classroom engineering lecture typically begins with the what, why, and  when.What are the fundamental abstract concepts and laws which have resulted from research and development, and what is the best form of mathematical symbolism needed to relate these abstract concepts to measureable properties? What derivations follow from the laws of electricity, mechanics and thermodynamics, or the conservation principles of mass, momentum, energy? What are the assumptions and idealizations inherent in the derivation of mathematical expressions for these laws? What empirical laws can be used to extend the analysis and what are the limitations of these empirical laws? What is the best approach to problem solving and system identification? Why do some mathematical models lead to differential equations and some result in algebraic equations? Why are some linear and some non-linear, and why is it sometimes necessary to linearize complex phenomena? When can certain ideal equations be applied? When can one assume that a continuum exists, or that steady state or equilibrium is present?

Since engineering is an applied science, the how and what if constitute a large part of lecture presentations. Here the formal lecture can become inefficient. Reproducing solutions on a chalk board is not time efficient. The use of transparancies often does not work well since the optimum pace and repetition is different for each student. Referring students to solution manuals, hand-outs or even example problems in the text often produces only a single solution, one point on a curve, and give no clue to the trends or behavior of the mathematical model. The Internet gives better options.

Self-paced, interactive, distance learning works best as a complement to the formal lecture paradigm. The set of solutions in this ELC are designed to be a lecture complement, not a supplement. They allow the lecture process to extend beyond the classroom but are not removed from a classroom lecture format. Each solution contains objectivessummary of theory, illustration of solution technique, and review questions or problems to verify understanding.
This computer oriented, WEB based presentation is not an engineering text. Important fundamental definitions, concepts, and derivations found in many excellent texts are not repeated. Here one begins with a problem, or application, and builds upon the fundamental foundation as needed. This simulates the manner in which most engineering problems are addressed in practice. If this material is used to complement an introductory course, the instructor should assure that the student is aware of all assumptions, limitations, and abstractions inherent in the mathematical definitions and theory. If this material is used by practicing engineers or graduate students, they should be aware of suitable references that can be used as needed to justify the selected approach to a problem. 
The collection of problems and solutions which make up this textual material are generated using the equation solving software Mathcad, and its symbolic processor which is a subset of MAPLE. This software is available from MathSoft (  One objective in presenting this material is to use software which allows a "lecture friendly" presentation of the mathematics, solution techniques, and discussions which are suitable for either a distance learning environment or a complement to a traditional lecture environment. Each chapter contains only a small sample of problem solutions which hopefully will inspire similar effort generated by the user. Chapter contents appear in the Index.