Reflectance Map Options
Set these options:
||These parameters define the reflectance map:
- Sun azimuth: compass direction to the sun. By
convention this will be to the northwest (upper left),
which is where our mind is used to seeing artistic lighting. The circle on the upper right lets you move the sun by
double clicking. illumination. Although this is impossible for most of the
"real world" (North Hemisphere, non-tropics),
it avoids the problem of valleys and ridges trading
- Sun elevation: elevation angle for the sun. This
changes the illumination and shadows. It is measured from
the horizon and ranges from 0 to 90 at the zenith
(directly overhead). The circle on the upper right lets you move the sun by
double clicking. The center of the map is 90 elevation, the edges
- Vertical exaggeration: for typical DEMs this is
not necessary, but in very low relief areas or very small
scale DEMs you might want to increase this parameter if
the default contrast is too low. For 10-30 m DEMs, set VE
to 1-2 for starting, while for Global Data like ETOPO try VE=15. Two levels of default are now
kept, for small and large scale DEMs.
- Water options:
- Sea Level check: if selected, water
(defined as zero elevation) will be colored
distinctively. This cannot be done if elevation
tints are selected.
- Lake check: if selected, water (defined
as nine adjacent points with the same elevation)
will be colored distinctively. This cannot be
done if elevation tints are selected. The lake
check may not behave correctly in very flat,
stair step DEMs.
- Diffuse reflectance: diffuse reflectance uses a reflectance algorithm from Pelton (1987).
If unchecked, aspect-based shading is used, which uses many fewer
parameters. Buckley and others
(2004) suggest that in mountainous terrain diffuse reflectance may give better results.
- Z range: lets you select the elevation range used for the
elevation colors if they are not simply grayscale.
- Saturation--use very lightly. Saturation lets you interactively adjust the IHS view.
- Directions to average: multidirection options.
They will be equally spaced in azimuth, and all share the same sun
elevation. Only applies with diffuse reflectance
- Default button will return to the following
- Sun azimuth: 335
- Sun elevation: 45
- Vert exag: 1
- Elevation tints: off
- Sea level check: on
- Lake check: off
- Underwater elevs: off
- Colors: IHS elevation
- Diffuse reflectance
- Directions to average: 1
||Elevation colors in hillshade:
- Grays: no elevation colors, just terrain shading. This may
be best when overlaying colored vector data.
- Blue/Green: blue below sea level, and green
- Six colors: color will correspond to
elevation, with six categories (blue, cyan,
green, yellow, red, magenta), and the intensity
of the color will correspond with the amount of
- IHS elev merge: shadows and elevation colors; this is the
- Gray/color: land in gray, oceans in color
- Gray/blue: land in gray, water in blue
- The preview window on the lower right shows what the map
will look like.
Reflectance map theory.
Multi direction hillshades
Reflectance map references.
Last revision 9/17/2018