|Intro, Lo & Yeung chap 1
- Definition of GIS
- Parts of a GIS
|Maps & GIS, Lo & Yeung chap 2
- Map scale
- Map projections
- UTM projection
why a globe cannot serve as a useful map.
the following terms: large scale and small scale,
the things users might want in a projection:
equal-area, conformality, equidistant, azimuthal,
and geometry of rhumb lines, small or great
the three surfaces used to develop geometric
the Tissot indicatrix to show the distortion on a
the forward and inverse projection equations.
the measurements used to define an ellipsoid: a,
b, f, and eČ.
the historical and other reasons why different
datums have been used.
the difference between a local datum like NAD27
and an earth centered datum like WGS84.
how ellipsoids and datums are defined.
|Digital Representation Geography, Lo & Yeung chap
read section: 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.7, 3.8
- Vector vs raster
the following computer terms and how they apply
to mapping: bit, byte, kilobyte, megabyte,
vector, raster, binary, ASCII, dpi, compression
(lossy and lossless).
that the requirements for spatial relationships
make GIS databases a special case for computer
the different kinds of map data: vector, raster,
grid, and text.
how feature codes and coding work.
how topology complicates GIS storage compared to
spaghetti lines, but what it offers in return.
the geometries needed for vector map data:
points, lines, and areas.
some of the advantages and disadvantages of
vector versus raster data.
how DBMS works at the conceptual, logical, and
the construction of a database, especially a
relational database, with fields/attributes,
tuples/records, and relations/tables
|Data Quality & Standards, Lo & Yeung chap 4
4.4.2, 4.4.3, 4.5, 4.6.3, 4.6.4, 4.6.5, 4.6.6
- Accuracy, Precision, Error
- Standards & interoperability
- Differentiate accuracy, precision, error, and
- Discuss the dimensions of geographic data
- Discuss how to compute RMSE for positional
- Describe why data standards are beneficial
- Key terms: metadata
|Raster GIS, Lo& Yeung chap 5
- Discuss the advantages of raster data.
- Discuss raster operations in terms of input,
analysis, and output.
- Discuss the importance of registering
(georeferencing) raster data, including
rectification and resampling.
- Differentiate local, neighborhood, and regional
- Understand how color works in computer displays.
- Understand map algebra and cartographic modeling.
Engineering and Design - Hydrographic Surveying, sections 5-4, 5-5, 5-7,
the three measures of vertical elevation
(ellipsoid/geodetic height, orthometric height,
and geoid height)
the problems in measuring sea level, and the
terms used: MSL, MLW, MLLW, MHW, MHHW
the difference between a vertical datum like NGVD
1929 or NAVD 88 and any of the measures of sea
the need for tidal epochs on the 19 year Metonic
em_1110_1_1003 (Chap 2,3,4)
Entire manual, and just 3 chapters are on line
the components of the GPS system (space, ground,
terms: ephemeris, SPS, PPS, P-code, C/A code, S/A
the use of 2 frequencies and 2 codes to get
why we need three satellites to get 2D
coordinates, and four satellites for 3D.
|Vector GIS, Lo& Yeung chap 6
- Discuss vector operations in terms of input,
analysis, and output.
- Describe how to digitize data, and the importance
- Differentiate topological and non-topological
analysis with vector GIS.
- Discuss the reasons for including topology in
vector data sets, and the additional challenges
|Visualization, Lo& Yeung chap 7
- Discuss the advances that GIS brings to
- Discuss why human factors are so important to GIS
visualization (WYSIWYG, WIMP, GUI).
- Discuss the techniques for visualizing geographic
- Discuss cartographic design for GIS and
- Discuss how hardware constrains visualization.
|Remote Sensing, Lo& Yeung chap 8
- Describe the uses of imagery, both satellite and
aerial photography, in mapping and charting.
- Discuss the tradeoffs in image resolution
(spatial, spectral, radiometric, and temporal),
and how the S/N ratio affects the choices in this
- Understand the importance of
georegistered/geocoded imagery for mapping
- Discuss the geometry of views from space, both in
terms of require rectification and the
possibility of obtaining stereo views.
- Discuss how we can use image statistics for image
classification, and how that helps GIS analysis.
|Digital Terrain Modeling, Lo& Yeung chap 9
- Differentiate DEMs and TINs, and the relative
advantages of each.
- Discuss how DEMs can be created, including SRTM
- Discuss the range of DEMs available, from global
data like ETOPO5 down to point-like 1 m LIDAR
- Discuss the uses of DEMs in GIS.
|Spatial Analysis, Lo & Yeung chap 10
- Discuss why spatial autocorrelation is important
in GIS and the earth sciences.
- Discuss the uses and procedures for network
|Project Management, Lo& Yeung chap 11
- Describe the three phases of software engineering
(problem definition, development, maintenance)
and how they apply to GIS.
- Understand the importance of the user in
designing a GIS project.
- Describe the entity-relationship model for data
modeling, and the importance to attributes.
- Understand how layers and coverages, and geometry
(point-line-areas) affect GIS project design.
|Issues and Prospects, Lo& Yeung chap 12
- Discuss how the web and data portals have
- Discuss how data quality issues (finding,
evaluating, converting) rely on metadata to
document projections, datums, and formats.
- Describe the difference between GIS training and
- Discuss the attraction of OpenGIS and
|ECDIS and DNC
- Know the components of an ECDIS system (hardware,
software, ENC data in S57 format converted into
SENC), and the precise legal requirements,
including provisions for updating the chart data.
- Understand the differences in mapping
requirements between a national hydrographic
office and military chart makers
- Know that DNC is in VPF and DIGEST (NATO) format,
and not S57.
- Know why all NGA digital data uses lat/long
coordinates and WGS84.
- Understand that NGA produces different classes of
maps and charts, and that the projections and
grids used vary in a systematic fashion.
- Know what the following digital data sets are:
CIB, CADRG, ADRG, and DTED.
- Discuss the types of nautical charts: sailing,
coastal, approach, and harbor, in terms of their
purpose and what they depict.
- Explain why NGA compress imagery and scanned
- Differentiate the VPF and RPF.