SO432 Syllabus

 Fall 2001



Mon 20 Aug Course Introduction & History of Mapping Chapter 1, p.1-7
  1. Know what GI&S stands for, as well as its precursor, MC&G.
  2. Know the major US mapping organizations (NIMA/DMA, NOAA, and USGS).
  3. Know what GIS stands for, and its relationship to the fact  that mapping will soon be almost entirely digital.
  4. Understand that mathematical constructs like projections and datums have practical importance.
Wed 22 Aug History of Mapping--Group exercise  
  1. Discuss the important developments in mapping in the following time periods: ancient and medieval, Renaissance, Enlightenment, 19th century, and 20th century.
  2. Discuss the relationships among map making, astronomy, mathematics, and navigation.
  3. Discuss why a globe cannot serve as a useful map.
  4. Define the following terms: large scale and small scale, map projection, portolan chart.
  5. Discuss how GIS is becoming part of the mainstream for marine researchers.
Mon 27 Aug Group exercise    
Wed 29 Aug Group exercise    
Wed 5 Sep Sidescan sonar e-text Gloria
  1. Discuss the uses of side scan sonar for charting operations.
  2. Discuss how a side scan sonar uses the time of a return and its intensity to build up a picture of the bottom.
  3. Discuss the controls on return strength.
  4. Discuss the geometric and radiometric corrections applied to side scan sonar data.
Mon 10 Sep Map Projections e-text GEODUC Datums, Projects, Coords, p.1-5

USGS handout, Prof.Pap. 1395, 1453

  1. Discuss the things users might want in a projection: equal-area, conformality, equidistant, azimuthal, and geometry of rhumb lines, small or great circles.
  2. Discuss the three surfaces used to develop geometric projections.
  3. Discuss the Tissot indicatrix to show the distortion on a map.
  4. Differentiate the forward and inverse projection equations.


Wed 12 Sep Map Datums e-text: 2 NIMA datum handouts
  1. Discuss the measurements used to define an ellipsoid: a, b, f, and eČ.
  2. Discuss the historical and other reasons why different datums have been used.
  3. Discuss the difference between a local datum like NAD27 and an earth centered datum like WGS84.
  4. Discuss vertical datums and the different vertical height measurements.
  5. Discuss the need for datum transformations.
  6. Discuss how ellipsoids and datums are defined.


Mon 17 Sept Paper maps versus digital maps Chapter 10, p.137-147
  1. Understand the following computer terms and how they apply to mapping: bit, byte, kilobyte, megabyte, vector, raster, binary, ASCII, dpi, compression (lossy and lossless).
  2. Differentiate the different kinds of map data: vector, raster, grid, and text.
  3. Understand the geometries needed for vector map data: points, lines, and areas.
  4. Discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of vector versus raster data.
Wed 19 Sept Data models  Chapter 3, p.25-35
  1. Discuss the difference between vector and raster data, and how grid data like DEMs differs from other raster data.
  2. Discuss the types of compression, and why we would like to compress map data.
Mon 24 Sept GPS principles GPS e-text: Chap 2, Chap.5
  1. Understand the components of the GPS system (space, ground, and user).
  2. Key terms: ephemeris, SPS, PPS, P-code, C/A code, S/A
  3. Discuss the use of 2 frequencies and 2 codes to get position data.
  4. Understand why we need three satellites to get 2D coordinates, and four satellites for 3D.
Wed 26 Sept Exam    
Mon 1Oct GPS error GPS: e-text: Chap 6
  1. Discuss the sources of error and error measures with GPS surveys: PDOP, CEP, and RMS.


Wed 3 Oct GPS lab    
Wed 10 Oct Smart ship    
Mon 15 Oct Grids and MGRS e-text DMA TM8358.1, chap.2 and 3 
  1. Know the 4 conformal map projections used by the military (Transverse Mercator, polar stereographic, Lambert conformal conic, and Mercator)
  2. Differentiate a grid and graticule.
  3. Discuss how the UTM projection differs from the Mercator.
  4. Discuss the purpose and procedures used with the MGRS.
  5. Know what the Molodenskiy Transformation does.
Wed 17 Oct GIS  
  1. Define a geographic information system (GIS), and the importance of topology
  2. Discuss the components of a GIS and how they interact to solve useful problems.
  3. Discuss the four major functions of a GIS (input, storage, analysis, output).
  4. Describe why data model  design steps (external, conceptual, logical, and internal) are important to the creation of a GIS.
  5. Understand the importance of metadata with a GIS project, especially the scale, datum, and projection.
Mon 22 Oct GIS part II    
Wed 24 Oct Vertical datums e-text: : EM 1110-2-1003
Engineering and Design - Hydrographic Surveying, sections 7-1, 7-5, 7-7.

e-text: NAVD88

  1. Differentiate the three measures of vertical elevation (ellipsoid/geodetic height, orthometric height, and geoid height)
  2. Understand the problems in measuring sea level, and the terms used: MSL, MLW, MLLW, MHW, MHHW
  3. Understand the difference between a vertical datum like NGVD 1929 or NAVD 88 and any of the measures of sea level.
  4. Discuss the need for tidal epochs on the 19 year Metonic cycle.
  5. Discuss the importance and use of tidal observations during hydrographic surveys.
Mon 29 Oct Depth soundings e-text: : EM 1110-2-1003
Engineering and Design - Hydrographic Surveying, sections, sections 8-3, 8-4, 8-5, 8-18, 8-19, and 8-20
  1. Know the three types of methods for depth soundings: sounding poles, lead lines, and echo sounders.
  2. Understand the principles of echo sounder operation, and the corrections that must be applied.
  3. Discuss the advantages of multibeam echo sounders


Wed 31 Oct Exam    
Mon 5 Nov DNC/ECDIS Chap.on ECDIS in text
  1. Know the components of an ECDIS system (hardware, software, ENC data in S57 format converted into SENC), and the precise legal requirements, including provisions for updating the chart data.
  2. Understand the differences in mapping requirements between a national hydrographic office and military chart makers
  3. Know that DNC is in VPF and DIGEST (NATO) format, and is not yet approved for ECDIS


Wed 7 Nov Subbottom profiling e-text: BGAS using surface geophysics
  1. Discuss the uses of seismic reflection profiling, particularly in the marine environment.
  2. Discuss how the reflection coefficient is determined from the ratio of the difference of the impedances over the sum of the impedances.
  3. Know the tradeoffs between low and high frequency for reflection work.
  4. Understand the controls on impedance: Grain size, Density, and Porosity


Wed 14 Nov NIMA and USGS data types etext: Geoduc book: skim chap 5,  chap.6, chap.8, and chap.9
  1. Know why all NIMA digital data uses lat/long coordinates and WGS84.
  2. Understand that NIMA produces different classes of maps and charts, and that the projections and grids used vary in a systematic fashion.
  3. Know what the following digital data sets are: CIB, CADRG, ADRG, and DTED.
  4. Discuss the types of nautical charts: sailing, coastal, approach, and harbor, in terms of their purpose and what they depict.
  5. Explain why NIMA compress imagery and scanned maps.
  6. Differentiate the VPF and RPF.
  7. Know that USGS produces DEMs, DRGs, and DOQs, and how these compare to NIMA products.
  8. Know that USGS uses a UTM projection and coordinates for its digital data, and how this compares with the NIMA use of lat/long coordinates.
Mon 19 Nov NIMA Guest lecture  
  1. Describe the current situation with DNC and ECDIS.
Wed 21 Nov Research with DEMs  
  1. Discuss the uses of DEMs for mapping and geological research.
Mon 26 Nov Hydrography via radar altimeter Handout
  1. Discuss why satellite altimeters can greatly improve our mapping of the deep oceans.
  2. Discuss the operation of radar altimeters.
  3. Discuss the history of radar altimeters, and why the GEOSAT Geodetic Mission provided the best data compared to SEASAT, the Exact Repeat Mission, or the current TOPEX/POSEIDON.
  4. Know what the ETOPO5 data set is.
  5. Discuss the importance of crossovers in hydrographic surveying.
Wed 28 Nov Moving cockpit maps

Imagery in mapping

  1. Describe the challenges of creating digital maps for aviators.
  2. Describe the uses of imagery, both satellite and aerial photography, in mapping and charting.
  3. Discuss the tradeoffs in image resolution (spatial, spectral, radiometric, and temporal)
  4. Understand the importance of georegistered/geocoded imagery for mapping


Mon 3 Dec Course review    



Tues 21 Aug D10 Map & Charts & Intro to GI&S
Tues 28 Aug   Group exercise
Tues 4 Sep YP Lab Intro to sidescan operations
Tues 11 Sep   Cancelled
Tues 18 Sep D10 Map projections & datums
Tues 25 Sep YP Lab  
Tues 2 Oct   GPS
Tues 9 Oct YP Lab  
Tues 16Oct   GIS--electoral redistricting
Tues 23 Oct   GIS--database creation
Tues 30 Oct YP Lab  
Tues 6 Nov    
Tues 13 Nov   Sidescan mosaic
Tues 20 Nov   Raster maps, compression and resolution
Tues 27 Nov   Mapping from satellite imagery