Short answer 5 @ 6 30 ___________
Short answer 1 @ 10 10 ___________
Total 100 ___________
Read the directions carefully. You have a selection of questions for the definitions and the short answers.
Insure that you devote at least 10 solid minutes on the essay.
Definitions: define 10 of the 12 terms with a concise sentence that clearly shows your understanding of the term: Each is worth three points.
(a) Portolan chart:
(b) Selective availability:
(c) Meads Ranch:
(j) Lossless compression:
(k) Large scale:
Answer 5 of the 6 short answer questions and this and the next page; each is worth 6 points.
(1) How do we measure the error in locating positions with a GPS? Why must we do this statistically?
(2) Differentiate radiometric and geometric corrections for side scan sonar, and give a reason why each type of correction might be required.
(3) What is an ellipsoid, and when must we use it in mapping? How does the ellipsoid differ from a datum?
(4) How do we apply the concept of map scale to vector and raster data?
(5) What are the differences between the forward and inverse equation for a map projection?
(6) How can we use sonar methods to study the sediment below the surface of the ocean?
At Annapolis: h=1.285 k=1.285
At Annapolis: h=0.781 k=1.281
You must answer this question; it is worth 10 points.
The two maps on the previous page both have Tissot indicatrices overlaid, and have the values of h and k indicated for the position of Annapolis.
Essay. This is worth 30 points.
The traditional chart or map was a paper product produced by a mapping agency. We are now moving to an era of digital maps and charts, and have the capability to make the map into a base for GIS.
· Discuss the advantages of turning the basic map or chart into a GIS data set, in terms either of an oceanographic research cruise or a naval ship.
· Discuss the costs of this transformation.
· Discuss the challenges in designing the map or chart data set, and how decisions in the design stage will affect the ultimate users of the data.