SO461 Syllabus--Fall 2013 (12/6/2013)

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Week Lectures   Lab  
1: Aug 19-23 Mon,Wed Course Intro
  1. Rock cycle implies geologic recycling, just like plate tectonics.
  2. Uniformitarianism, the present is the key to the past.
  3. Catastrophism is not a black box, but the product of the laws of nature we see operating today.
  4. Geologic time: 1mm/yr = 1km/My

Geologic time and dating  Reading: usgs geotime

  1. Differentiate relative and absolute dating.
  2. Understand the law of superposition, and the principal of original horizontality.
  3. Describe the principles involved in radiometric dating, and list some of the isotope pairs used.
  4. Be familiar with the geologic time scale.

 

Thur Lab 1: stereo net and maps.

Before class, download the MICRODEM help file.  Open it, and in the contents, open the Geological Oceanography Course (one up from the bottom), and then open the Overview page.  Go through the pages on the Lab 1 testable theory.

Place one Word document, with your last name as the first part of the file name, in the course drop box in the new Blackboard.  You will correctly format figures and tables using the guidelines in the department style manual.  The file will be online by 1330 when next week's lab starts. 

2: Aug 26-30 Mon,Wed Earthquakes and velocity structure , GT 9-21
  1. Differentiate the three different types of faults, and give representative plate settings where they occur.
  2. Given the orientations of the two focal planes and the compressional and dilational axes,  interpret a focal mechanism diagram and determine the type of fault represented.
  3. Define the following earthquake terms: focus, epicenter, magnitude, and the three main types of waves (P, S, and surface).
  4. Differentiate the Richter Magnitude and Mercalli Intensity
Thur Lab 2: a far field trip.

In the MICRODEM help file open the course Overview page and go through the pages on the Lab 2 testable theory.

You will place one Word document, with your last name as the first part of the file name, in the course drop box in the new Blackboard.  You will correctly format figures and tables using the guidelines in the department style manual.  The file will be online by 1330 when next week's lab starts.

3: Sept 3-6 Tues, Wed Crust, Mantle, and core  GT 21-33
  • Discuss how we can use earthquake arrival times to determine the layering in the crust.
  • Describe the layers of the ocean crust, and how they correspond to ophiolites.
  • Discuss the gross composition and structure of the mantle and core.
  • Discuss the plate tectonic settings, and rocks involved, in plutons, stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, and MORB
  • Understand the classification of igneous rocks based on texture or cooling (intrusive/extrusive), and chemical composition (mafic, intermediate, felsic)
  • Key terms: gabbro, peridotite, pillow basalts, and sheeted dikes

Deformation, isostasy, and heat flow   GT 33-53

  • Differentiate brittle and ductile deformation, and the conditions leading to each.
  • Differentiate the Airy and Pratt models of isostasy, and what is required for isostasy to operate on the earth.
  • Discuss why the thickness of the lithosphere varies depending on how we measure it.
  • Discuss how heat flow varies on the earth.
  • Differentiate free air and bouguer gravity anomalies
Thur Lab 3: a deep field trip

As preparation before the lab, download the latest MICRODEM help file open the course Overview page and go through the pages on the Lab 3 testable theory.

At the start of the lab, download the last MICRODEM EXE.

You will place one Word document, with your last name as the first part of the file name, in the course drop box in Blackboard.  You will correctly format figures and tables using the guidelines in the department style manual.  The file will be online when next week's lab starts. 

4: Sept 9-13 Mon,Wed Sedimentary rocks
  • Discuss where silica oozes, carbonates, red clays, terrigenous sediments, and ice rafted sediments occur, and why they have this distribution.
  • Discuss what the vertical sequence of rock types can tell about the history of the location.
  • Discuss the importance of rads, diatoms, forams, and coccoliths in the ocean sediments.

History of deep sea drilling

 

Thur (Guth conference) Place one Word document, with your last name as the first part of the file name, in the course drop box in Blackboard.  You will correctly format figures and tables using the guidelines in the department style manual.  The file will be online by 1330 when next week's lab starts.

Lab 4: DSDP/ODP Project 

5: Sept 16-20 Mon, Wed Sea floor spreading  GT 72-90
  • Discuss why marine magnetic anomalies form, and how they provided the clinching evidence for plate tectonics.
  • Discuss the use of magnetic anomalies to date the seafloor, determine spreading rates, and infer the former locations of plate boundaries.
Thur Lab 5: Marine magnetic  anomalies

As preparation before the lab, download the latest MICRODEM help file open the course Overview page and go through the pages on the marine magnetics lab testable theory.

At the start of the lab, download the last MICRODEM EXE.

Place one Word document, with your last name as the first part of the file name, in the course drop box in Blackboard.  You will correctly format figures and tables using the guidelines in the department style manual.  The file will be online by 1330 on Oct 3. 

6: Sept 23-27 Mon, Wed (exam 1) Sidescan sonar and subbottom profiler: geologic and sonar
  • TWTT
Thur Lab 6: YP (sidescan and subbottom) (no lab due this week)
7: Sept 30-Oct 4 Mon, Wed Continental drift and magnetism  GT 54-71
  • Understand  how we use Euler's theorem to model motion on the earth's surface.
  • Discuss the kinds of evidence for plate motions, especially paleoclimates.
  • Describe how paleomagnetic sampling can reveal a paleo-latitude but not a paleo-longitude, and why that sometimes causes scientists to use apparent polar wander (APW) paths.

 

Thur Lab 6: Plate rotations
8: Oct 7-11 Mon,Wed Framework of plate tectonics   GT 91-120 (two periods)
  • Discuss recent absolute measures of plate velocities (GPS and VLBI)
  • Discuss the importance of hot spots in providing an absolute reference frame
  • Differentiate total reconstruction poles, stage poles, and instantaneous poles of rotation
  • Understand why motions of multiple plates on a sphere require that some of the rotation poles must move.
  • Understand and interpret plate velocity diagrams.
  • Compute triple junction stability, and the migration of triple junctions.

 

Thur Lab 8: Triple junctions.  Review pages 110-120 of the text before the lab, and bring your text.

You many do this lab in groups of 1-3 students.  You will analyze one triple junction per group. 

You will place one Word document, with your last name as the first part of the file name, in the course drop box in Blackboard.  You will correctly format figures and tables using the guidelines in the department style manual.  The file will be online by 1330 on March 7. 

9: Oct 14-18 Wed (Guth conference) Military geography, Battle of Big Hole.  Watch the video, and write 500 words on how the physical environment affected the battle, and how GIS helped interpret the archaeology. Thur (Guth conference) Lab 7: sedimentation rates
10: Oct 21-25 Mon  (Guth conference), Wed Ocean ridges  GT 121-151
  •  Discuss the characteristics of ridges in terms of plate spreading rate.
Thur
Continue lab 7
11: Oct 28-Nov 1 Mon,Wed (exam 2) Continental rifts GT 152-209
  • Describe the rifting process, both when an ocean basin forms and an aulocagen forms
  • Describe the Wilson cycle
  • Differentiate narrow versus wide rifting zones.
  • Differentiate volcanic versus non-volcanic rifted margins
  • Key terms: large igneous provinces, geosyncline

 

 

Thur Lab 10: Seismic reflection lab 
12: Nov 4-8 Mon,Wed Transform faults GT  210-248
  • Describe the bathymetric expression of transform faults and fracture zones.
  • Differentiate right-lateral and left-lateral strike-slip faults.
  • Describe how motion along a ridge-offsetting transform differs from a classical strike slip fault.
  • Discuss what happens at transpressional and transtensional bends on strike-slip faults.
  • Describe leaky transforms

 

Thur  

Lab 11: Subduction zone geometry

13: Nov11-15 Wed Subduction zones  GT 249-285 (two periods)
  • Discuss the classification of metamorphic rocks in terms of pressure and temperature, and the explanation for paired metamorphic belts in terms of plate tectonics.
  • Describe the features associated with the subduction zone boundary: forearc bulge, trench, subduction complex,accretionary prism, forearc basin, volcanic arc, backarc basin/marginal sea, and backarc ridge
  • Discuss the distribution of earthquakes across a subduction zone, and why they include both normal and reverse mechanisms.
  • Discuss how chemistry controls the different formations of andesitic volcanoes and granitic plutons
  • Key terms: blueschist, turbidites

 

Thur Lab: Tsunamis and megathrusts
14: Nov 18-22 Mon,Wed Mountain ranges GT  286-345
  • Differentiate Andean and collisional mountain belts
  • Discuss the distribution of earthquakes in an orogenic belt and the Benioff zone
  • Discuss how indentation tectonics works in southern Asia
  • Discuss how suspect terranes form, and how they might relate to oceanic plateaus
Precambrian tectonics GT 346-378
  • Discuss how Precambrian heat flow affects uniformitarian views of plate tectonics
  • Describe unique features of Archaean crust like granite-greenstone belts
  • Discuss the supercontinent cycle

 

 

Thur Lab 12: Italy orogeny
15: Nov 25-29 Mon (Wed is Friday schedule) Mechanisms plate tectonics  GT 379-403 (two lessons)
  • Discuss the problems with the expanding earth hypothesis.
  • Discuss the use of corals to calculate the length of the year.
  • Discuss the distribution of heat flow in the earth's crust.
  • Describe how mantle convection could work.
  • Discuss the forces acting on plates
  • Discuss the areal distribution of convection cells.

 

   
16: Dec 2-5 Mon,Wed Implications of plate tectonics  GT 404-423
  • Discuss how Archaen and Proterozoic plate tectonics might resemble or be different from current processes.
  • Discuss how plate tectonics affects economic geology, especially with fossil fuels, and climate-controlled deposits like laterites, bauxite, and evaporites
  • Key terms: greenstone belts, granulite gneiss, source/ trap/seal.

Course review

  • Discuss the role of geologists as historians of the earth, and why this has practical applications
  • Describe how catastrophes can be incorporated in a uniformitarian view of geologic history.
  • Appreciate the differences between the geology of the oceans and the continents. 
Thur Lab 13: Movie day

 

Old labs