
Orthographic (equatorial aspect)
 Project perpendicular to plane
 Known to Egyptians and Greeks 2000 years ago
 Severe distortion at edges
 Looks like globe


Stereographic (equatorial aspect)
 Conformal
 Projected from point at center on
"back" of the globe
 2d century BC


Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (equatorial aspect)




Orthographic (polar aspect)
 Project perpendicular to plane
 Known to Egyptians and Greeks 2000 years ago
 Severe distortion at edges
 Looks like globe


Stereographic (polar aspect)
 Conformal
 Projected from point at center on
"back" of the globe
 2d century BC


Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (polar aspect)




Equidistant Cylindrical
 Simplest and oldest
 dates 200 BC or 100 AD
 Also called equirectangular projection, equidirectional
projection, geographic projection, plate carrée or carte
parallelogrammatique projection
 In ArcGIS this is the GCS projection
 Other than as a quick and dirty map of the world, this has no
redeeming geometrical characteristics, and should never be used for
large scale maps.


Mercator Ellipsoidal
 Based on cylinder
 Conformal
 Straight rhumb lines, parallels, and meridians
 Poles at infinity
 1569


Cylindrical Equal Area
 Parallel spacing decreases toward poles, by
Cos(Lat)
 Shows poles (but distorted)
 Lambert, 1772
Lambert's latitude of no distortion was the equator. Others
have suggested different latitudes (the "central latitude"
of the projection):
 Gall, 45º
 Behrmann, 30º
 Edwards, about 37º
 Peters, about 4547º
Lambert's version is above, the GallPeters below. To keep areas
equal, note the stretching in one direction compensated by equivalent
compression in the other direction.


Miller Cylindrical
 Parallel spacing increases toward poles
 Shows poles
 1942


UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator)
 This is a projection for Zone 18, and normally would be zoomed
in to show a much smaller area.
 The central meridian is zone 18 runs north south, and the others
convergeto the east on the left side of the map, and to the west
on the right.




Lambert Conformal Conic
 Based on cone
 Straight meridians, curved parallels
 Very close to also being equal area for a region like the
continental US


Albers Equal Area
 Based on cone
 Straight meridians, curved parallels
 Very close to also being conformal for a region like the
continental US




Sinusoidal
 Pseudocylincrical
 Equal area
 since mid 16th century


Molleweide


Van Der Grinten
 Entire globe inside a circle
 All meridians and parallels are arcs of circles
(except equator and central meridian, which are
straight lines or infinite circles)
 1904


Hammer
 Modified Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (halve
vertical coordinates, and show more meridians to
have entire globe visible)
 Remains equal area
 1892
