Normalized Satellite Indexes

Index Name Definition (pre-Landsat 8) Landsat 8 Sentinel-2 Results Reference
NDWI Normalized Difference Water Index      

Water will be white (large values); shows coastlines well.

NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index       Vegetation will be white.  Red is 0.63 to 0.69, and NIR is 0.76 to 0.90.  
GDVI Generalized Difference Vegetation Index (NIR-Green)/(NIR+Green)       Wu, W. The Generalized Difference Vegetation Index (GDVI) for Dryland Characterization. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 1211-1233. .
NDSI Normalized Difference Snow Index (TM2-TM5) / (TM2+TM5) (TM3-TM6) / (TM3+TM6) (B03 - B11) / (B03 + B11)   Dozier, 1989, Remote Sensing Environment
NDSI Normalized Difference Soil Index (TM5-TM4) / (TM5+TM4) (TM6-TM5) / (TM5+TM6) (B11 - B08) / (B08 + B11)    
NDMI Normalized Difference Moisture Index  (B04 - B05) / (B04 + B05) (B05 - B06) / (B05 + B06) (B08 - B11) / (B08 + B11)  
NDCI Normalized Difference chlorophyll index     (band 5 - band 4) / (Band 5 + Band 4) (708-655)/*708+665) Mishra and Mishra, Remote Sens. Environ., 117 (2012), pp.394-406
NBR Normalized Burn Ratio       Needs a longer wavelength SWIR band not included with 4 band sensors.  
VARI Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (green-red)/ (green+red-blue)       Gitelson and others, 2002

Compute indexes on Imagery analysis menu for satellite imagery Create difference index, band ratio, new band  menu option.  These are all ratios, and require two bands, except for the VARI which uses three.

Values are stored as floating point.

USGS on Landsat Surface Reflectance-Derived Spectral Indices



Last revision 3/9/2023