Atmospheric Transmittance

Transmission in the atmosphere varies by wavelength.  Particular gasses cause each of the absorption bands.  Note the effects of CO2, particularly in the TIR, which explain its role as a greenhouse gas.

Translated from Russian at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Atmosfaerisk_spredning-ru.svg

Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 have three bands in regions where the atmosphere absorbs:

Landsat 8 Band Sentinel-2 Band Use
Band 1 Coastal/aerosol 0.43-0.45 B01 : 443 nm (60 m) This edge of the blue suffers from scattering (what makes the sky blue). It has two main uses: imaging shallow water, and tracking fine particles like dust and smoke. By itself, its output looks a lot like Band 2 (normal blue)?s, but if we contrast them and highlight areas with more deep blue, we can see differences.
  B09 : 945 nm (60 m) Band 9 measures moisture in the atmosphere, compared to Band 8a in an atmospheric window region. Band 9 is the measurement channel in the absorption region.
Band 9 cirrus 1.36-1.38 B10 : 1375 nm (60 m) Anything that appears clearly in it must be reflecting very brightly and/or be above most of the atmosphere, which absorbs completely at this wavelength.  These clouds are hard to see otherwise.

 

 
https://www.usgs.gov/faqs/what-are-band-designations-landsat-satellites?qt-news_science_products=0#qt-news_science_products


 

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Atmospheric_Transmission.png