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Stockdale Center for Ethical Leadership
Stockdale Center for Ethical Leadership

Moral Virtue and Moral Injury

 

Moral Virtue

 Aristotle

  • Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics
  • Alasdair MacIntyre, After Virtue (1981), Ch. 12: “Aristotle’s Account of the Virtues”
  • Susan Meyer, “Aristotle on the Voluntary,” Richard Kraut, ed., The Blackwell Guide to Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (2006)
  • Ursula Coope, “Why does Aristotle Think that Ethical Virtue is Required for Practical Wisdom?” Phronesis 57 (2012)

 Stoics

  • Epictetus, Handbook
  • Brad Inwood and L.P. Gerson, Hellenistic Philosophy: Introductory Readings, Diogenes Laertius (pg. 90-203), Stobaeus (pg. 203-232), Cicero (pg. 234-242), others (pg. 242-260)
  • T.H. Irwin, “Virtue, Praise, and Success: Stoic Responses to Aristotle,” The Monist 73 (1990)
  • Matthew Sharpe, “Stoic Virtue Ethics,” Stan van Hooft et al., eds., The Handbook of Virtue Ethics (2014)

 Aquinas

  • Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Book II, questions 55-67
  • Aquinas, Commentary on The Nicomachean Ethics
  • Aquinas, Disputed Questions on Virtue
  • Jean Porter, “Virtue Ethics in the Medieval Period,” Daniel C. Russell, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Virtue (2014)
  • Alasdair MacIntyre, After Virtue (1981), Ch. 13: “Medieval Aspects and Occasions”

 Modern/Enlightenment approaches to virtue

  • David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, Book III, Part 1: “Virtue and vice in general” and Part 3: “The other virtues and vices”
  • Charles Griswold, Adam Smith and the Virtues of Enlightenment, Ch. 5: “The Theory of Virtue,” pp. 179-227
  • Anne Margaret Baxley, “Kantian Virtue,” Philosophy Compass (2007)

 Contemporary virtue ethics: early figures in “the revival”

  • G.E.M. Anscombe, “Modern Moral Philosophy,” Philosophy 33 (1958)
  • Philippa Foot, “Virtues and Vices,” Virtues and Vices and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy (1978)
  • Alasdair MacIntyre, After Virtue (1981)
  • Timothy Chappell, “Virtue Ethics in the Twentieth Century,” Daniel C. Russell, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Virtue (2014)

 Contemporary virtue ethics: recent works

  • Rosalind Hursthouse, On Virtue Ethics (1999)
  • Thomas Hurka, Vice, Virtue and Value (2001)
  • Julia Annas, Intelligent Virtue (2011)
  • Linda Zagzebski, Exemplarist Moral Theory (2017)
  • _______, “Exemplarist Virtue Theory,” Metaphilosophy 41 (2010)
  • Michael Slote, From Morality to Virtue (1992)
  • _______, “Agent-Based Virtue Ethics” (1995)
  • Swanton, Christine, Virtue Ethics: A Pluralistic View (2003)
  • _______, “A Virtue Ethical Account of Right Action” (2001)
  • Nancy Snow, Virtue as Social Intelligence (2010)

 Comparative virtue ethics: Confucian and Islamic approaches

  • “Recep Alpyagil, “Virtue in Islam,” Stan van Hooft et al., eds., The Handbook of Virtue Ethics (2014)
  • Philip Ivanhoe, “Virtue Ethics and the Chinese Confucian Tradition,” in Steve Angle and Michael Slote, ed., Virtue Ethics and Confucianism (2013)
  • Lo Ping-Cheung, “How Virtues Provide Action Guidance: Confucian Military Virtues at Work,” in Steve Angle and Michael Slote, eds., Virtue Ethics and Confucianism (2013)
  • Hui-chieh Loy, “Classical Confucianism as Virtue Ethics,” Stan van Hooft et al., eds., The Handbook of Virtue Ethics (2014)

 Critiques of virtue ethics: can it provide an account of right action?

  • Robert Louden, “On Some Vices of Virtue Ethics,” American Philosophical Quarterly 21 (1984)
  • R. Das, “Virtue Ethics and Right Action,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (2003)
  • Frans Svensson, “Virtue Ethics and the Search for an Account of Right Action,” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (2010)
  • Liezl van Zyl, “Virtue Ethics and Right Action,” Russell, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Virtue Ethics (2014)   

Critiques of virtue ethics: situationism & other empirical challenges

  • Gopal Sreenivasan, “The situationist critique of virtue ethics,” in Russell, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Virtue Ethics (2014)
  • John Doris, Lack of Character: Personality and Moral Behavior (2002)
  • _______, “Persons, Situations and Virtue Ethics”, Noûs, 32 (1998)
  • M. Merritt, “Virtue Ethics and Situationist Personality Psychology”, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 3 (2000)
  • Rachana Kamtekar, “Situationism and Virtue Ethics on the Content of Our Character,”Ethics 114 (2004)
  • K. Kristjánsson, “An Aristotelian Critique of Situationism”, Philosophy 83 (2008)
  • Julia Annas, “Comments on John Doris’s lack of character” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (2005)
  • Jesse Prinz, “The Normativity Challenge: Cultural Psychology Provides the Real Threat to Virtue Ethics” The Journal of Ethics 13 (2009)
  • Edward Slingerland, “The Situationist Critique and Early Confucian Virtue Ethics,” Ethics 121 (2011)
  • Christian Miller, Moral Character (2013)
  • Mark Alfano, Character as Moral Fiction (2013) [Introduction, Ch. 3 “Attempts to Defend Virtue Ethics” and Ch. 4, “Factitious Moral Virtue”]
  • Upton, Candace, 2016, “The Empirical Argument Against Virtue,” Journal of Ethics 20 [Reply to Alfano 2013 and Miller 2014]
  • _______, “Virtue Ethics and Moral Psychology: The Situationism Debate,” Journal of Ethics13 (2009)
  • Robert Sapolsky, Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst (2018)
  • J. Woodward, “Emotion versus Cognition in Moral Decision-Making: A Dubious Distinction,” S.M. Liao, ed., Moral Brains: The Neuroscience of Morality (2016)
  • F. Cushman, F., L. Young, L. & J. Greene, (2010) “Multi-System Moral Psychology,” John Doris, ed., The Moral Psychology Handbook (2010)
  • J. Friedman, A.I. Jack, K. Rochford & R. Boyatzis, “Antagonistic Neural Networks Underlying Moral Behavior,” Organizational Neuroscience: Monographs in Leadership and Management 7 (2015)
  • Kevin Mullaney & Mitt Regan, “One Minute in Haditha: Ethics and Non-Conscious Decision-Making” (unpublished paper)

Critiques of virtue ethics: moral luck

  • Bernard Williams, “Moral Luck,” Daniel Statman, ed., Moral Luck (1993)
  • Thomas Nagel, “Moral Luck,” Daniel Statman, ed., Moral Luck (1993)
  • Margaret Urban Walker, “Moral Luck and the Virtues of Impure Agency,” Metaphilosophy 22 (1991)
  • Claudia Card, The Unnatural Lottery: Character and Moral Luck (1996), Ch. 2: “Responsibility and Moral Luck”
  • Shay, Achilles in Vietnam: Combat Trauma and the Undoing of Character (1994), Ch. 8: “Soldier’s Luck and God’s Will”

Critiques of virtue ethics: moral dilemmas

  • Rosalind Hursthouse, On Virtue Ethics, Ch. 3: “Irresolvable and Tragic Dilemmas” 
  • Lisa Tessman, Moral Failure: On the Impossible Demands of Morality (2014), Ch. 1: “Moral Dilemmas and Impossible Moral Requirements”

Role morality and its relationship to virtue

  • Michael O. Hardimon, “Role Obligations,” The Journal of Philosophy 91 (1994)
  • David Luban, “Professional Ethics,” R.G Frey et al., eds., The Cambridge Companion to Applied Ethics (2008)
  • Richard Wasserstrom, “Roles and Morality,” David Luban, ed., The Good Lawyer: Lawyers’ Roles and lawyers’ Ethics (1993)
  • Alan Gewirth, “Professional Ethics: The Separatist Thesis,” Ethics 96 (1986)

Regime-focused virtues

  • Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Books VII-VIII
  • Alasdair MacIntyre, After Virtue, Ch. 17: “Justice as a Virtue: Changing Conceptions”
  • Stephen Macedo, Liberal Virtues: Citizenship, Virtue, and Community in Liberal Constitutionalism (1990), Introduction and Ch. 7: “Liberal Virtues”
  • Peter Berkowitz, Virtue and the Making of Modern Liberalism (2000)
  • Victoria Costa, “Political Liberalism and the Complexity of Civic Virtue,” The Southern Journal of Philosophy XLII (2004)

Military virtues: general

  • Mark Jensen, “Epictetus vs. Aristotle: What is the Best Way to Frame the Military Virtues?”, Naval War College Review 70 (2017)
  • Peter Olsthoorn, Military Ethics and Virtues (2010), Ch. 1: “Virtue Ethics in the Military”

Military virtues: loyalty/patriotism vs. justice/cosmopolitanism?

  • Martha Nussbaum, “Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism,” in Martha Nussbaum and Joshua Cohen, eds., For Love of Country? Debating the Limits of Patriotism (1996)
  • Charles Taylor, “Why Democracy Needs Patriotism,” Nussbaum and Cohen, eds., For Love of Country
  • Michael Walzer, “Spheres of Affection,” Nussbaum and Cohen, eds., For Love of Country
  • Alasdair MacIntyre, Is Patriotism a Virtue? (1984)
  • Andrew Oldenquist, “Loyalties,” Journal of Philosophy 79 (1982)
  • George Fletcher, Loyalty: An Essay on the Morality of Relationships
  • Peter Olsthoorn, Military Ethics and Virtues, Ch.4: “Loyalty”

Military virtues: the future

  • Marcus Schulzke, “Rethinking Military Ethics in an Age of Unmanned Weapons,” Journal of Military Ethics 15 (2016)
  • David Luban, “Integrity: Its Causes and Cures,” Fordham Law Review 72 (2003)
  • Peter Olsthoorn, Military Ethics and Virtues, Ch. 2: “Honor,” Ch. 3: “Courage,” Ch. 5: “Integrity”
  • Jesse Kirkpatrick, “Drones and the Martial Virtue Courage,” Journal of Military Ethics 14 (2015)
  • Robert Sparrow, “War Without Virtue?”, B.J. Strawser, ed., Killing by Remote Control: The Ethics of an Unmanned Military (2015)

Moral Injury

Definitions

  • Shay, Achilles in Vietnam, Introduction and Ch. 1, “Betrayal of ‘What’s Right’” (1994)
  • _______, “Moral Injury,” Psychoanalytic Psychology (2014)
  • Tyler Boudreau, “The Morally Injured,” The Massachusetts Review (2011)
  • Bret Liz, et al, “Moral injury and moral repair in war veterans: A preliminary model and intervention strategy,” Clinical Psychology Review (2009)
  • Tine Molendijk, Eric-Hans Kramer & Désirée Verweij, “Moral Aspects of ‘Moral Injury’: Analyzing Conceptualizations on the Role of Morality in Military Trauma,” Journal of Military Ethics (2018)
  • Timothy J. Hodgson and Lindsay B. Carey, “Moral Injury and Definitional Clarity: Betrayal, Spirituality and the Role of Chaplains,” Journal of Religious Health (2017)
  • Joseph Wiinikka-Lydon, “Dirty Hands and Moral Injury,” Philosophy (2018)
  • Eyal Press, “The Wounds of the Drone Warrior,” The New York Times Magazine (2018)
  • Tine Molendijk, Eric-Hans Kramer and Désirée Verweij, “Moral Aspects of ‘Moral Injury’: Analyzing Conceptualizations on the Role of Morality in Military Trauma,” Journal of Military Ethics 17 (2018)
  • Nancy Sherman's Afterwar: Healing the Moral Wounds of Our Soldiers (2015)
  • _______, The Untold War: Inside the Hearts, Minds, and Souls of Our Soldiers (2011)
  • David Wood, What Have We Done
  • Robert Meagher and Douglas Pryer, eds., War and Moral Injury: A Reader (2018)
  • Robert Meagher, Killing from the Inside Out: Moral Injury and Just War (2014)

Moral emotions: guilt, shame, distress, resentment and anger

  • Jonathan Shay, Achilles in Vietnam, Ch. 4: “Guilt and Wrongful Substitution”
  • Nancy Sherman, Afterwar, Ch. 3: “They’re My Baby Birds”
  • Martha Nussbaum, Hiding from Humanity: Disgust, Shame, and the Law (2006), Ch. 4: “Inscribing the Face: Shame and Stigma”
  • Bernard Williams, Shame and Necessity (2008)
  • Elizabeth Epstein and Ann Hamric, “Moral Distress, Moral Residue, and the Crescendo Effect,” Journal of Clinical Ethics 20 (2009)
  • Alisa Carse, “Moral Distress and Moral Disempowerment,” Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 3 (2013)
  • Stephen M. Campbell et al., “A Broader Understanding of Moral Distress,” American Journal of Bioethics 16 (2016)
  • Martha Nussbaum, Anger and Forgiveness, Ch. 2, “Anger: Weakness, Payback, Down-Ranking”
  • Amia Sreenivasan, “The Aptness of Anger” (2018)
  • Nancy Sherman, Stoic Warriors: The Ancient Philosophy behind the Military Mind, Ch. 5 “A Warrior’s Anger” (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2005)
  • Margaret Urban Walker, Moral Repair, Ch. 4, “Resentment and Assurance”
  • Ernesto Garcia, “Bishop Butler on Forgiveness and Resentment” (2011)

Treating moral injury: apology and atonement

  • Aaron Pratt Sheperd, “For Veterans, a Path to Healing Moral Injury
  • Maimonedes, The Laws of Repentance
  • Michael Murphy, “Apology, Recognition, and Reconciliation” (2010)
  • Jeff Corntassel & Cindy Holder, “Who’s Sorry Now? Government Apologies, Truth Commissions, and Indigenous Self-Determination in Australia, Canada, Guatemala, and Peru” (2008)

Treating moral injury: forgiving others and oneself

  • Charles Griswold, Forgiveness: A Philosophical Exploration, Ch. 2 “Forgiveness at its Best”
  • Martha Nussbaum, Anger and Forgiveness, Ch. 3, “Forgiveness: A Geneology”
  • Jean Hampton and Jeffrie Murphy, Forgiveness and Mercy, Ch. 1, “Forgiveness and Resentment” and Ch. 2, “Forgiveness, Resentment, and Hatred”
  • Margaret Urban Walker, Moral Repair, Ch. 5 “Forgiving” and Ch. 6 “Making Amends”
  • Claudia Card, The Atrocity Paradigm, Ch. 8, “The Moral Powers of Victims”
  • Lucy Allais, “Wiping the Slate Clean: The Heart of Forgiveness” (2008)
  • Charles Griswold, Forgiveness: A Philosophical Exploration, Ch. 3 “Imperfect Forgiveness”
  • Per-Erik Milam, “How is Self-Forgiveness Possible?” (2017)
  • Nancy Sherman, Afterwar, Ch. 4: “Recovering Lost Goodness”
  • Worthington and Langberg, “Religious Considerations and Self-Forgiveness in Treating Complex Trauma and Moral Injury in Present and Former Soldiers” (2012)