Alfred K. Schanze Papers, 1904-1919: Finding Aid
Published in January 2022
- Publisher: United States Naval Academy. Special Collections & Archives.
- Publisher Address:
589 McNair Road
Annapolis, Maryland 21402-5029, USA
- Call number: MS 558
- Location: Special Collections & Archives Department - Manuscripts
- Title: Alfred K. Schanze Papers
- Dates: 1904-1919
- Size: 1.04 linear feet
- Container Summary: 2 manuscript boxes, 1 half-manuscript box
- Creator: Schanze, Alfred Keys, 1886-1950
- Language(s) of material: English, French
- Abstract: Alfred K. Schanze was an officer in the United States Naval Reserve Force and a member of the United States Naval Academy Class of 1908. The Alfred K. Schanze Papers span from 1904 to 1919. The papers are the product of Schanze's time as a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy and his service as an officer in the United States Naval Reserve Force in Europe during World War I.
Biography of Alfred K. Schanze
Alfred Keys Schanze was born in New Jersey on March 29, 1886 and grew up in Newark, New Jersey, where he attended the Newark Academy. Schanze was appointed to the United States Naval Academy in 1904 from New Jersey's 8th Congressional District. As a member of the Class of 1908, Schanze served as his company's commander in his First Class year. Following graduation in June 1908, Schanze served his mandatory two years at sea prior to commissioning aboard U.S.S. North Carolina (Armored cruiser: ACR-12) from June 1908 until December 1909 and aboard U.S.S. Birmingham (Light cruiser: CL-2) from January until March 1910. Schanze resigned from the Navy on June 4, 1910.
After his resignation from the Navy and prior America's entrance into World War I, Schanze worked as a mechanical engineer for the Pitter Fan Company in Michigan. On May 15, 1917, he was commissioned a Lieutenant in the United States Naval Reserve Force and was ultimately attached to U.S.S. Corsair (Patrol yacht: SP-159), which sailed with the American Expeditionary Force to France and served as an escort and antisubmarine patrol craft thereafter. In June 1918, Schanze was transferred to the French station ship Marthe Solange, where he served as a liaison officer. In September of that year he was transferred to Naval Base, Brest, where he briefly served on Admiral Wilson's staff before being transferred again in January 1919 to Tour, France, where he served as aide to a Captain Fremont (possibly Commander John C. Fremont), Naval Representative at Army Headquarters. Despite applications to be commissioned in the Civil Engineer Corps after the war, Schanze was presumably discharged following the United States' demobilization. Alfred Keys Schanze was a resident of Annandale, New Jersey at the time of his death in July 1950.
Description of Contents
The Alfred K. Schanze Papers, comprising 1.04 linear feet of documentation, span from 1904 to 1919. The papers are the product of Schanze's time as a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy and his service as an officer in the United States Naval Reserve Force in Europe during World War I.
Included in the collection are incoming and outgoing letters, bulletins, orders, and war game problems.
The Schanze Papers are organized into two series by document type. Series 1: Personal Correspondence, consists to two sequences of letters written by Schanze to his family. The first, spanning from 1904 to 1908, is the product of Schanze's time as a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy, including various details of early twentieth century Academy life. The second, spanning from 1917 to 1919, is the product of Schanze's service in the Naval Reserve Forces in Europe during World War I, including duties aboard U.S.S. Corsair, as a liaison officer, and at Tours, France. Series 2: Official Records and Correspondence is overwhelmingly the product of Schanze's service during World War I, consisting of official letters, orders, information bulletins, and Allied wargaming problems. Many of the documents, especially the bulletins and wargaming materials, pertain to antisubmarine warfare against German U-boats.
The Alfred K. Schanze Papers are organized into the following two series:
- Series 1: Personal Correspondence, 1904-1919
- Series 2: Official Records and Correspondence, 1904-1918
Access and Use
Access is unrestricted. All papers originally bearing security restrictions were examined by S. Brewer, USNA Assistant Security Manager, and declared unrestricted and declassified in 1993.
Copyright and Permission
The Alfred K. Schanze Papers are the physical property of Nimitz Library. Copyright belongs to the authors or creators of the works, or their legal representatives. For further information, consult the Head, Special Collections & Archives.
It is the responsibility of the researcher to secure written permission to publish, reprint, or reproduce material from Special Collections & Archives. The researcher assumes responsibility for infringement of copyright or literary or publication rights. Please contact the Head, Special Collections & Archives for permission to publish and for further information.
Acquisition and Appraisal
Provenance and Acquisition
Gift of Jean G. Schanze in March 1964.
Related Archival Material
Additional material in this repository pertaining to Alfred K. Schanze can be found in his Midshipman Personnel Jacket and Alumni Jacket.
Materials Cataloged Separately
No materials have been removed from this collection and cataloged separately.
Publications Citing These Papers
The Alfred K. Schanze Papers have been published, in part, in Letters from Annapolis: Midshipmen Write Home, 1848-1969, edited by Anne Marie Drew.
Processing and Other Information
The Alfred K. Schanze Papers were originally processed as a single series and housed with the Alumni/Memorabilia section of the Naval Academy Archives until December 2021.
Alfred K. Schanze Papers, MS 558
Special Collections & Archives Department
United States Naval Academy
The following sources were consulted during preparation of the biographical note:
United States. Bureau of Naval Personnel. Register of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the United States Navy and Marine Corps. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1917-1919.
Schanze, Alfred K. Alumni Jacket, RG 405, Special Collections & Archives, Nimitz Library.
Schanze, Alfred K. Midshipman Personnel Jacket, RG 405, Special Collections & Archives, Nimitz Library.
This collection was processed by David D'Onofrio in January 2022. Finding aid written by David D'Onofrio in January 2022.
Name and Subject Terms
- Corsair (Yacht)
- Midshipmen -- Conduct of life
- Schanze, Alfred Keys, 1886-1950
- United States Naval Academy -- Curricula
- United States Naval Academy -- Hazing
- United States Naval Academy -- Midshipmen -- Cruises
- United States Naval Academy -- Social life and customs
- United States Naval Academy -- Students -- Correspondence
- War games
- World War, 1914-1918 -- Naval operations -- Submarine
- World War, 1914-1918 -- Naval operations, American
Series 1: Personal Correspondence, 1904-1919 Boxes 1-2Subseries Description
Letters written by Schanze, primarily to his mother, father, brother Edwin, and sister Florence, while studying at the United States Naval Academy as a midshipman and serving in the Naval Reserve Force in Europe during World War I. The letters written while a midshipman touch on various subjects, such as: references to extended family, family parties, Schanze's siblings, summering at the Jersey Shore, preparations for family visits to Annapolis (often boarding with Miss Roget or at Carvel Hall), the receipt of packages of German food from home, and the family's African-American servants; Plebe and Third-Class year roommate Chester A. Bloebaum, classmate Jerome Hunsaker, and roommate John Rankin; studies at the Academy, especially mathematics; socializing in Annapolis with the Steele and Bartlett Families; progress of Ernest Flagg's reconstruction of the Naval Academy; hazing incidents at the Academy; and ceremonies following the return of John Paul Jones' remains. The letters written during World War I, while limited due to censorship, reference such topics as: the escort and antisubmarine patrols of U.S.S. Corsair; Schanze's duties as liaison to French forces aboard the French station ship Marthe Solange; his time stationed at Tours; and Schanze's opinions of the French and Portuguese.Subseries Arrangement
Personal Correspondence, 1904 January-April
Sent while attending Wilmer and Chew's United States Naval Academy Preparatory School in Annapolis. Includes remarks on the African American and servant population of Annapolis (January 7 and February 7); personal expenses; room and board at Miss Roget's; supply requests from home; skating on the Severn River; attendance at a ball (February 2); updates on health; the Great Baltimore Fire (February 9); progress in preparatory school studies; Schanze's socializing with a Mr. Butler and Miss Steele; the death of Nevette Steel; Navy Baseball against Gallaudet (March 21); and meetings with Commander Poyer at the Academy.
Personal Correspondence, 1904 July-August
Sent from the United States Naval Academy. Includes remarks on the daily training routine (July 9); seamanship, cutter, and steam launch drills; French studies and recitations; a launch party up to Round Bay (July 17); receipt of new uniforms and frenching out to meet professor Wilmer (July 20); classmates punished aboard the Santee (Frigate); time constraints as a Midshipman (July 30); rifle and pistol practice (August 1); having an African-American servant smuggle in food (August 2); pressing need to finish construction of Bancroft Hall (August 9); duty as Midshipman in Charge of the floor (August 17); reactions to the Russo-Japanese War (August 17); Schanze's family summering in Bradley [Beach]; six-inch gun training (August 21); and Midshipmen fighting a tar fire in Bancroft Hall (August 25).
Personal Correspondence, 1904 September-December
Sent from the United States Naval Academy. Includes remarks on hazing from upperclassmen as being comical (September 2 and 4); practical seamanship instruction and manning the rigging aboard the training ship U.S.S. Chesapeake (September 10); socializing with Charlotte Steele of Annapolis; hurricane damage to the Academy and Annapolis (September 15); attempts to keep practice in German; textbook issue and the high load of math courses (September 23); moving into new quarters (September 29); grades and discussion of bow compasses (December 4); Plebes being dunked on Christmas (December 27); and fallout from midshipman being drunk on Christmas (December 29).
Personal Correspondence, 1905 January-March
Sent from the United States Naval Academy. Includes remarks on New Year's celebrations (January 1); physical disqualifications among the Brigade (January 8); a New Year's reception held by Superintendent Brownson (January 10); semi-annual exams; preparations for the Graduation Ball; Japanese candidates teaching Judo to midshipmen (January 26); 34 classmates resigning due to bilging (failing) (February 5); preparations for the Inauguration of President Roosevelt (February 12); joining the gymnastics team; the death of Midshipman W. W. Battle of the Class of 1906 (February 19-22); the Inaugural Parade for President Roosevelt (March 5); thoughts on the Russo-Japanese War (March 5); and Schanze's grades.
Personal Correspondence, 1905 April-June
Sent from the United States Naval Academy and U.S.S. Hartford (Screw sloop-of-war). Includes remarks on the Navy dentist (April 3); plans for June Week; crew races and baseball games; the transfer of the remains of the Mexican Ambassador (April 16); low grades for the month of April; death of Commander Stoney (May 1-3); a sham battle on Worden Field (May 3); calling on the Steele Family of Annapolis; Superintendent Brownson's promotion to Rear Admiral (May 10); receiving updates on the Army-Navy baseball game by telegraph (May 21); grades; strenuous work during summer cruise aboard U.S.S. Hartford in the Chesapeake Bay and Gardner's Bay; the sudden nature of drills aboard ship (June 9); mock bombardment of shore batteries and Fortress Monroe (June 12-18); and sailing from the Chesapeake to Gardner's Bay (June 30).
Personal Correspondence, 1905 July-October
Sent from U.S.S. Hartford (Screw sloop-of-war), U.S.S. Florida (Monitor: BM-9), and the United States Naval Academy. There are no letters from September. Includes remarks on visiting Manhansett House Hotel on Shelter Island (July 4); navigating through fog en route to and opinions of Rockland, Maine (July 8-10); transfer to U.S.S. Florida and ease of duty compared to Hartford; description of New London, Connecticut (July 19); the Bennington (Gunboat: PG-4) disaster and description of the guns/armament of the Florida (July 24); Florida's handling of rough seas (July 30); shore leave in Catine, Maine (August 9-10); preparations for summer leave (August 20); transfer to U.S.S. Atlanta (Protected cruiser) (August 23); description of new quarters and assignment to the 6th Company (October 20-22); changes at the Academy under Admiral Sands (October 22); announcement of a hop to be attended by the Prince of Battenberg (October 25); and stricter conduct enforcement at the Academy (October 29).
Personal Correspondence, 1905 November-December
Sent from the United States Naval Academy. Includes remarks on the parade, reception, and ball for the Prince of Battenberg and the visiting British squadron (November 2-5); improvements in math (November 17); attending a local reception with Japanese midshipman Asahi Kitagaki (November 19); conducting a sham battle in the fields and hills around Annapolis (November 19); train trip back from the Army-Navy Game (December 3); introductory dinner for the new Japanese Naval Attache (December 6); rumors of a reduction in Brigade size by Secretary Bonaparte and new organization of the Brigade (December 8); the court-martial following the Branch-Meriwether Fight, hazing investigations, the Jerdone Kimbrough case, and criticism of newspaper coverage of the Academy (December 8-20); and preparations for Christmas (December 24).
Personal Correspondence, 1906 January-February
Sent from the United States Naval Academy. Includes remarks on the Brigade's difficulties in math (January 2); inadequate plumbing in Bancroft Hall (January 8); hazing investigations, including against Minor Meriwether, Stephen Decatur, and Schanze's roommate, Chester Bloebaum (January 11, 17-21, 25, and February 1); grades and the opinion that the Academy is trying to reduce the Brigade through attrition (January 8-13); dunking the editors of the Lucky Bag (January 30); exams in math, English, physics, mechanical drawing, and French (February 3-11); and Schanze's first time in the chemistry laboratory (February 21).
Personal Correspondence, 1906 March-May
Sent from the United States Naval Academy. Includes remarks on an order establishing early graduation for midshipmen achieving a 3.4 (March 6); new room assignment with roommate John Rankin (March 17-21); securing a date for the Easter Hop (April 1-4); publication of a navigation exam in the newspapers (April 8); the Vreeland Bill for direct commissioning of Academy graduates (April 8); ceremonies for the arrival of the body of John Paul Jones (April 18-27); the destruction of the Academy laundry by fire (April 23); work in the machine shop; final punishments for and efforts to reinstate several midshipmen accused of hazing (May 6-9, 20); and progress on the construction of Ernest Flagg's buildings (May 27).
Personal Correspondence, 1906 June-July
Sent from the United States Naval Academy and U.S.S. Newark (Protected cruiser: C-1). Includes remarks on exams and grades (June 3-12); opinions of the Newark and the expected workload from Commandant George Colvocoresses (June 19-23); shipboard duties, shipyard visits, and coaling ship (June 27); engine room and boiler room duty, and Newark's decaying machinery (July 1-7); practical navigation work en route to New London (July 14-15); most of the cruise spent at anchor; and visiting Griswold House Hotel at New London (July 28).
Personal Correspondence, 1906 August-December
Sent from U.S.S. Newark (Protected cruiser: C-1) and the United States Naval Academy. Includes remarks on New York Yacht Club yachters at New London (August 6); preparations for summer leave in Belmar, including the purchase of a bathing suit; perceived ill treatment of midshipmen aboard U.S.S. Denver (Protected cruiser: C-14) (August 9); construction progress and Schanze's new room in Bancroft Hall (September 30); studies of naval boilers, principles of mechanism, heat, and ordnance (October 5); football against St. John's (October 19); October and November exams and grades; grades in mechanics and progress with the gymnastics team (October 26-27); Annapolis' new tea room (November 4); engineering and seamanship training aboard the monitor Nevada (Monitor: BM-8) (November 7); difficulties in procuring Army-Navy tickets; celebrations following the Army-Navy Game (December 3); demerits for misreporting the number of midshipmen present in class (December 7); the death of Midshipman James Dayton (December 11); completion of the Mahan Hall Academic complex (December 16); and Christmas hops in the Armory.
Personal Correspondence, 1907 January-May
Sent from the United States Naval Academy. Includes remarks on promotion to Cadet Petty Officer and Jerome Hunsaker's demerits for neglect of duty (January 15-20); Schanze's sister Florence attending Academy hops; January exams; First Class request that the Second Class not wear their class rings (January 31); term grades (February 3); graduation and user duty (February 11-14); filling in as company commander (February 17); gymnastics competition against University of Pennsylvania and subsequent hop (March 9-10); March exams; rumors regarding and preparations for the upcoming Jamestown Exposition (April 9, 15 and May 1); May grades; Schanze's reporting the entire First Battalion for an unspecified infraction (May 16); spring sports competitions; preparations for June Week; and May exams and grades.
Personal Correspondence, 1907 June-August
Sent from U.S.S. Olympia (Protected cruiser: C-6). Includes remarks regarding a review by the President and attendance at the Jamestown Exposition (June 11-14); courtesies extended to First Class midshipman aboard Olympia (June 14); entering Block Island Sound (June 29); gun deck mate duty and July 4 in New London (July 4-9); practical navigation work (July 16); liberty in New London and Black Point; a turret explosion aboard U.S.S. Georgia (Battleship: BB-15) (July 19-26, 30); the Newport Torpedo Station and the submarine U.S.S. Octopus (Submarine: SS-9) (July 23); preparations for summer leave in Belmar; reception at Bath, Maine (August 3-8); and the end of the practice cruise (August 16-21).
Personal Correspondence, 1907 September-December
Sent from the United States Naval Academy. Includes remarks on Schanze's new company petty officers and duties as company commander (September 28-October 1, 5, 27); increase in practical instruction and meetings of the Annapolis Lodge (October 3); benefits of being a striper/midshipman officer (October 8); dinner with Commandant William Benson (October 13); disappointing hop in Memorial Hall and a lack of good dancing spaces (October 22); dental work in town; reception at the Superintendent's house and a production of "George Washington Jr." in town (October 27); Commandant Benson's views on proper evening attire (October 30); successful hop in the new Armory (Dahlgren Hall) (November 20); preparations for and welcoming the football team home from the Army-Navy Game (November 24-December 7); social calls with faculty in around Annapolis; difficulties in Navigation and discussions regarding such with Captain Muir (December 15); planning for Christmas; and Christmas dinner with the Pickrell family and the midshipmen's Christmas parade through Bancroft Hall (December 26).
Personal Correspondence, 1908 January-May
Sent from the United States Naval Academy. Includes remarks on an upcoming Navigation exam, referred to as "The Great Fight" (January 21); receptions held by the wives of the Superintendent and Commandant; January, February, March, and April grades; preparations for and results of a gymnastics meet against University of Pennsylvania (February 6-18); dedication of the Porter Window in the Chapel (February 21); a hop in the new gym (March 1); torpedo practice aboard U.S.S. Bagley (Torpedo boat: TB-24) (March 11); birthday hazing rituals at the Academy (March 28); baseball victory against Amherst (April 5); preparations for a June Week house party; bills, reserve pay, and uniform expenses (April 12); request for assignment to U.S.S. North Carolina (Armored cruiser: ACR-12) or Montana (Armored cruiser: ACR-13) (April 29-May 5); trouble with the Bartlett Family servants (May 10); and the final electrical engineering recitation and the drowning of Midshipman Arthur Lucas (May 19).
Personal Correspondence, 1917 June-December
Sent from U.S.S. Corsair (Yacht). Includes remarks on the torpedoing of S.S. Antilles (November 17); description of Corsair's antisubmarine warfare activities (November 17-24); and convoy duty during a violent squall, resulting repairs in Lisbon, and description of that city (December 22).
Personal Correspondence, 1918 January-February
Sent from U.S.S. Corsair. Includes a recounting of escorting Pershing's American Expeditionary Force to France (January 9); social calls in Lisbon and a friendly rivalry with Commander Porter of Passaic, New Jersey (January 12); Minister to Portugal Colonel Birch and continued social calls in Lisbon (January 21); restrictions on American service members ashore in France (February 5); complaints about American media coverage of American service members (February 9); and the work of Army engineers in France and the torpedoing of S.S. Antilles (February 24). Also included is an April 20, 1918 letter on American construction efforts in France, efforts on the home front, excitement among the allies, and the reactions of African Americans aboard a convoy during a U-boat attack.
Personal Correspondence, 1918 March-April
Sent from U.S.S. Corsair (Yacht). Includes remarks on steaming through heavy seas in a winter storm (March 21); French photograph studios and the abundance of French wine (March 25); springtime in French vineyards (March 31); Schanze's commission and pay, a proposed meeting with Captain Edward L. Beach, Sr., and commendation for good behavior in Lisbon (April 5); battles around Amiens and Germany's surprise over the strength of American ground forces (April 9); political unrest in Lisbon following the overthrow of President Bernardino Machado and fears of counter-revolution on New Year's Eve (April 11); belief that the Germans are nearing defeat (April 17); and the possibility of the commissioning of Schanze's brother as an Ensign in the Navy Reserve Force (April 18).
Personal Correspondence, 1918 May-July
Sent from U.S.S. Corsair (Yacht) and the French station ship Marthe Solange. Includes remarks on daily routine aboard the Corsair (May 1); Schanze's request for command of a new destroyer built by Ford (May 12, 26); progress of the naval career of Schanze's brother, diminishing of the German submarine threat, and the importance of women working on the home front (May 18); the role of French liaison officers and Schanze's transfer to a French station ship as a liaison (June 4-27); and French sentiments towards America and Americans (July 14).
Personal Correspondence, 1918 August-December
Sent from the French station ship Marthe Solange and Naval Base, Brest. Includes remarks on French cuisine and the social obligations of being a liaison officer (August 2); transfer to the Admiral's staff at Naval Base, Brest and gains made by the American forces in Europe (September 13); continued advances by the American Army (October 1-13); attempts to get Schanze's brother transferred to the Princess Matoika (Transport) (October 26); celebrations following the Armistice (November 12); and concerns over how to handle Schanze's German heritage while serving as a liaison to the French (November 15). Also includes a letter of commendation from French Captain Beaudroit (September 22).
Personal Correspondence, 1919 January-February
Sent from Tours, France. Includes remarks on Schanze's transfer and transit to Tours as aide to Captain Fremont, Naval Representative at Army Headquarters (January 3-25); a January 22 request for transfer from the Reserves to the regular Construction Corps (February 8); and Schanze's work in coordinating troop and supply ships for demobilization and Army supplies (February 17). Also includes a cover letter dated June 17.
Personal Correspondence, 1919 March-October
Sent from Tours, France. Includes remarks on difficulties with the mail (March 12); views of continental Europeans as greedy and ungrateful (March 28); opinion of the French as crude (April 16); and Schanze's impending return home (April 25). Includes a June 15 newspaper clipping regarding a victory dinner in honor of the Troop Transport service and two telegrams regarding Schanze's return to the United States aboard U.S.S. Des Moines (Protected cruiser: CL-17).
Series 2: Official Records and Correspondence, 1904-1918 Boxes 2-3Subseries Description
Official documents received by Schanze, primarily while serving in Naval Reserve Force in Europe during World War I. Roughly half of the series consists of official Circular Letters, Information Bulletins, the Bulletin of Submarine Warfare, American Press News, and the NPO Bulletin, which include updates and current events such as recent submarine attacks, changes in regulations, recent submarine attacks and anti-submarine engagements, allied shipping losses, personnel transfers, news from the home front, baseball scores, ship rosters, and recent injuries and deaths of American service members. Other World War I related documents include a series of antisubmarine wargaming problems and solutions, as well as Schanze's official letters and orders.
Also included in the series are Schanze's grades from his Naval Academy entrance examinations.
Several documents in this series are in French.Subseries Arrangement
Arranged alphabetically by document type.
Official Correspondence, 1918 March-1919 January
Includes documents pertaining to financial receipts; an account of the sinking of a German submarine from U.S.S. Leviathan; Schanze's request for command of a destroyer (May 12, 31); orders to duty in District of Rochefort (May 31); a map of Havre; a complaint against French river pilots from Verdon to Pauillac (June 7); the sluggish departure of merchant ships in convoy (June 27); landing incidents involving S.S. Iroquois (July 11); description of a submarine detection device (July 14); establishment of a Naval Intelligence Service in French ports (July 31); convoy logistics; an address by Major General Malleterre (August 16-20); history and geography of the Gironde (September 7); a description of Schanze's duties aboard Marthe Solange (September 7); the transfer of Seaman R. S. Gamble (September 7-9); Schanze's attempt to joined the Civil Engineer Corps (December 20, January 13-17); and demobilization efforts (January 19).
Official Information Bulletins and Circular Letters, 1918 June
Includes documents pertaining to instructions for American vessels at Verdon and the Rochefort District; extracts from notes by L. V. Changeux on a submarine attack; Gironde River transport service; the sinking of U.S.S. President Lincoln; new destroyer construction; U-39's attack on the Gibraltar-Bizerta convoy; authorization to wear foreign decorations; U-Boat operations in the Mediterranean; Ensign K. B. Keyes' description of an aerial dogfight between British and German planes off the Dutch coast; and enemy submarine activity and counts by theater via the Bulletin of Submarine Warfare.
Official Information Bulletins and Circular Letters, 1918 July
Includes documents pertaining to the anniversary of the arrival of U.S. Naval Forces in France; the torpedoing of U.S.S. Covington; German dummy torpedoes; submarine attacks on S.S. Ruby and Santanna; sinking of U.S.S. Westover; battle squadron practice; damage to U.S.S. San Diego; sinking of U.S.A.C.T. Tippecanoe; and enemy submarine activity and counts by theater via the Bulletin of Submarine Warfare.
Official Information Bulletins and Circular Letters, 1918 August
Includes documents pertaining to the Browning aircraft machine gun; sinking of S.S. Ramon Marrinaga; Allied advances to the Rheims Soissons highway and south of the Somme; reports of Germans engaging in biological warfare by tainting products from Spain with diphtheria; the Petrograd Massacre; changes in draft age limits; delays in sending officers home for new destroyer construction; the salvage of Westward Ho; salvage of U.S.S. Westbridge; Senator Henry Cabot Lodge's peace speech; and enemy submarine activity and counts by theater via the Bulletin of Submarine Warfare.
Problems in Antisubmarine Warfare, 1918
Planning Section tactical problems and wargaming solutions, including: submarine hunting by sound; estimate of the general naval situation; cruiser submarines; attacks on enemy moral; naval air efforts in European waters; aircraft in antisubmarine efforts; submarine warfare in the English Channel; mining policy of the Northern Barrage; mining policy in the Kattegat (Sweden); antisubmarine campaign of 1918; doctrine of antisubmarine attack by convoy escorts; U.S. Naval building policy; battle cruiser raids; estimate of the general situation in the Mediterranean; use of the Grand Fleet on the Northern Patrol; and antisubmarine tactics.